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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Beltsville, Maryland (BHNRC) » Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center » Methods and Application of Food Composition Laboratory » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #380269

Research Project: USDA National Nutrient Databank for Food Composition

Location: Methods and Application of Food Composition Laboratory

Title: Dietary Fiber, Starch, and Sugars in Bananas at Different Ripeness in the Retail Market

Author
item Fukagawa, Naomi
item Pehrsson, Pamela
item McKillop, Kyle
item PHILLIPS, KATHERINE - Virginia Tech
item MCGINTY, RYAN - Virginia Tech
item COUTURE, GARRET - University Of California, Davis

Submitted to: PLoS ONE
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/4/2021
Publication Date: 7/8/2021
Citation: Fukagawa, N.K., Pehrsson, P.R., Mckillop, K.A., Phillips, K.M., Mcginty, R.C., Couture, G. 2021. Dietary Fiber, Starch, and Sugars in Bananas at Different Ripeness in the Retail Market. PLoS ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0253366.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0253366

Interpretive Summary: Bananas are one of the most widely consumed fruits and rank fourth after rice, wheat and corn among the world’s most economically important food crops. Carbohydrates are major components of the banana and include starch, sugars (fructose, glucose sucrose) and dietary fiber defined as the “nondigestible soluble and insoluble carbohydrates and lignin.” Sugars, starch, and dietary fiber were analyzed in a single sample of bananas at different stages of ripeness and in retail samples at the same assessed ripeness. Dietary fiber measured by the traditional enzymatic-gravimetric method (EG) was ~2 g/100g and not affected by ripeness. Mean fiber assessed with the recently modified method (mEG) was ~18 g/100g in unripe and decreased to 4-5 g/100g in ripe and ~2 g/100g in overripe fruit. There was a large increase in fructose, glucose and total sugar going from unripe to ripe with no differences between ripe and overripe. Variation in retail banana carbohydrate composition is likely related to differences in cultivar and post-harvest handling. Data emphasize the importance of measuring dietary fiber using the mEG approach and developing more comprehensive and sensitive carbohydrate analytical protocols.

Technical Abstract: Sugars, starch, and dietary fiber were analyzed in a single sample of bananas at different stages of ripeness and in retail samples at the same assessed ripeness. Mean fiber measured by the traditional enzymatic-gravimetric method (EG) was ~2 g/100g and not affected by ripeness. Mean fiber assessed with the recently modified method (mEG) was ~18 g/100g in unripe and decreased to 4-5 g/100g in ripe and ~2 g/100g in overripe fruit. Slightly ripe and ripe bananas differed by ~1.1 g/100g in the controlled single-sample study but not among retail samples. There was a large increase in fructose, glucose and total sugar going from unripe to ripe with no differences between ripe and overripe. Variation in retail banana carbohydrate composition is likely related to differences in cultivar and post-harvest handling. Data emphasize the importance of measuring dietary fiber using the mEG approach and developing more comprehensive and sensitive carbohydrate analytical protocols.