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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Athens, Georgia » U.S. National Poultry Research Center » Poultry Microbiological Safety and Processing Research Unit » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #363781

Research Project: Production and Processing Intervention Strategies for Poultry Associated Foodborne Pathogens

Location: Poultry Microbiological Safety and Processing Research Unit

Title: Salt-uptake characterization of whole carcasses during chilling

item RICHTER, STEPHANIE - Georgia Tech
item SABO, DANIEL - Georgia Tech
item Bartenfeld Josselson, Lydia
item HAYNES, COMAS - Georgia Tech
item Buhr, Richard - Jeff

Submitted to: Poultry Science Association Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/30/2019
Publication Date: 7/1/2019
Citation: Richter, S., Sabo, D., Bartenfeld Jossel, L.N., Haynes, C., Buhr, R.J. 2019. Salt-uptake characterization of whole carcasses during chilling. Poultry Science Association Meeting Abstract. 98(E-Suppl.1):242. p.94.

Interpretive Summary: none

Technical Abstract: This study supports our multiyear investigation of ice slurry for poultry immersion chilling. The study focus is to analyze the penetration of salt into poultry product, as it is a component of ice slurry. High salt presence in final meat product has producer labeling and consumer avoidance effects. Poultry skin is assumed to act as a barrier to limit water and salt uptake during the processing chilling phase. This experiment examines salt uptake tendencies of whole carcasses (WOGs) during immersion chilling at different salinities. All sample WOGs were collected post-evisceration and kept at temperature (28-35C). WOGs were chilled for 60 minutes by one of five methods; ambient air (23C), air chill (4C), chilled water (5C), 4.5% salinity chilled water (5C) or 15% salinity chilled water (5C). Chilled salt water was used to maintain constant and consistent chloride concentrations throughout the experiment. This avoided dilution effects of ice melting and assumed the worst case scenario of salt concentration. Chilling temperatures were selected to coincide with temperatures typical in current ice slurry applications. Pre- and post-chill, all WOGs were weighed and deep breast meat temperatures were logged. Post-chill, three samples were collected per carcass: breast skin, breast meat, and drumstick meat. This initial investigation included three replicates (n=75 carcasses; total 225 samples). Carcass samples were analyzed for salt concentration, specifically chloride. Salt was recovered from the skin and meat samples using a USDA-approved plant dry-ash method. The total chloride concentration was determined using an ion chromatograph (IC). Statistical analysis was corrected from IC data to account for sample weight and dilution factor. Chloride concentration was calculated as ppm/gram. One-way ANOVA test were used to compare chloride concentrations given groups defined by chilling treatment and carcass skin/meat sampling type, considering mean ± SD (p-value = = 0.05). Initial results show, of all 15 groups (5 chilling types * 3 sample types), 4.5% salinity and 15% salinity skin samples were the only statistically significant group (p = <0.0001) in chloride ppm/g. 4.5% salinity skin samples averaged 524 ppm/g and 15% salinity skin samples averages 2275 ppm/g. Results show no statistical significance (P > 0.05) between white and dark meat samples between the chilling forms. Results indicate that salt concentrations increase in the skin and does not affect white or dark meat. Further testing will examine a post-rinse to see if the chloride can be removed during processing.