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Title: Phylogeographic structure in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations inferred with mtDNA

item RUIZ-ARCE, RAUL - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
item OWEN, CHRISTOPHER - Pennsylvania State University
item Thomas, Donald
item BARR, NORMAN - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
item MCPHERON, BRUCE - Pennsylvania State University

Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/6/2015
Publication Date: 5/5/2015
Citation: Ruiz-Arce, R., Owen, C.L., Thomas, D.B., Barr, N.B., Mcpheron, B.A. 2015. Phylogeographic structure in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations inferred with mtDNA. Journal of Economic Entomology. 82:1-13. DOI:10.1093/jee/tov082.

Interpretive Summary: The Mexican fruit fly is a pest of citrus and mangos especially in Mexico and poses a threat to the citrus growing areas of the USA. We studied population genetics of this species from throughout its known range with the idea of developing the ability to identify the geographic origin of the periodic infestations that occur in the US. We found that there were basically three genetically identifiable groups. One is found throughout Mexico, another is found in nuclear Central America, and a third is found in Costa Rica. The Mexican population shows an unusually low genetic diversity suggesting that the gene pool stems from an aggressive pest genotype that has spread throughout the country by the commercial distribution of the citrus.

Technical Abstract: Anastrepha ludens (Loew), the Mexican fruit fly, is a major pest of citrus and mango. It has a wide distribution in Mexico and Central America with infestations occurring in Texas, California and Florida with origins believed to be centered in northeastern Mexico. This research evaluates the utility of a sequence based approach for two mitochondrial gene regions. We used these markers to examine genetic diversity, estimate population structure and identify diagnostic information for A. ludens populations. We analyzed 543 individuals from 67 geographic collections and found one predominant haplotype occurring in the majority of specimens. We observed 68 haplotypes in all and see difference among hapotypes belonging to northern and southern collections. Mexican haplotypes differ by few bases, possibly as a result of a recent bottleneck event. In contrast to the hypothesis suggesting a northeastern Mexican origin of this species we see that specimens from two southern collections show high genetic variability delineating three mitochondrial groups. These data suggest that Central America is the origin for A. ludens.