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ARS Home » Northeast Area » Beltsville, Maryland (BHNRC) » Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center » Food Surveys Research Group » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #308540

Research Project: What We Eat in America - Dietary Survey: Data Collection, Interpretation, Dissemination, and Methodology

Location: Food Surveys Research Group

Title: Top sources of dietary sodium from birth to 24 months, United States, 2003-2010

Author
item Maalouf, Joyce - Centers For Disease Control And Prevention (CDCP) - United States
item Cogswell, Mary - Centers For Disease Control And Prevention (CDCP) - United States
item Yuan, Keming - Centers For Disease Control And Prevention (CDCP) - United States
item Martin, Carrie
item Gunn, Janelle - Centers For Disease Control And Prevention (CDCP) - United States
item Pehrsson, Pamela
item Merritt, Robert - Centers For Disease Control And Prevention (CDCP) - United States
item Bowman, Barbara - Centers For Disease Control And Prevention (CDCP) - United States

Submitted to: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/18/2015
Publication Date: 3/11/2015
Citation: Maalouf, J., Cogswell, M.E., Yuan, K., Martin, C.L., Gunn, J.P., Pehrsson, P.R., Merritt, R., Bowman, B. 2015. Top sources of dietary sodium from birth to 24 months, United States, 2003-2010. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 101(5):1021-1028.

Interpretive Summary: Dietary sodium intake is high among U.S. children. High sodium intake is related to high blood pressure which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. Existing information on the dietary sources of sodium in children from birth to 24 months is limited. This study identified the top sources of dietary sodium among 2,911 U.S. children from birth to 24 months using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010. The top contributors among children ages 0-5.9 months were formula, human milk, and commercial baby foods. The top contributors among children ages 6-11.9 months were formula, commercial baby foods, soups, pasta mixed dishes, and human milk. The top contributors among children ages 12-23.9 months were milk, soups, cheese, pasta mixed dishes, and frankfurters/sausages. Most of the sodium consumed came from foods purchased at a store. Among children ages 12-23.9 months, sodium also came from restaurant foods and childcare centers. Before 6 months, almost all sodium is contributed by human milk and formula. After 6 months, the majority of sodium consumed comes from foods other than infant formula or human milk. Although the majority of sodium intake was from store foods, after age 12 months restaurant foods also contribute to intake. Results of this study may be beneficial for public policy administrators and other government groups, dietitians, and the food industry to identify foods for strategies to reduce sodium intake among this population.

Technical Abstract: Sodium intake is high among U.S. children. Data are limited on the dietary sources of sodium, especially from birth to age 24 months. The objective of this study was to identify top sources of dietary sodium among U.S. children from birth to 24 months. For this study, we used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010 to examine food sources of sodium (population proportions, mean intakes) among 778 participants aged 0-5.9 months, 914 aged 6-11.9 months, and 1,219 aged 12-23.9 months by sociodemographic characteristics. Results indicated the top food categories contributing to dietary sodium intake among infants aged 0-5.9 months were formula (71.7%), human milk (22.9%), and commercial baby foods (2.2%). Among infants 6-11.9 months, the top five contributors were formula (26.7%), commercial baby foods (8.8%), soups (6.1%), pasta mixed dishes (4.0%), and human milk (3.9%). Among children aged 12-23.9 months, the top contributors were milk (12.2%), soups (5.4%), cheese (5.2%), pasta mixed dishes (5.1%), and frankfurters and sausages (4.6%). Despite significant variation in top food categories across race/ethnic groups, commercial baby foods were a top food contributor among children aged 6-11.9 months, and frankfurters and sausages among children aged 12-23.9 months. The top 5 food categories contributing to sodium intake also differed by sex. Most of the sodium consumed (83%-90%) came from store foods (e.g. supermarket). Among children aged 12-23.9 months, 9% of sodium consumed came from restaurant foods and 4% from childcare center foods. In conclusion, before 6 months, almost all sodium is contributed by human milk and formula. After age 6 months, the vast majority of sodium consumed comes from foods other than infant formula or human milk. Although the majority of sodium intake was from store foods, after age 12 months restaurant foods contribute significantly to intake.