Location: Hard Winter Wheat Genetics ResearchTitle: Molecular markers linked to genes important for Hard Winter Wheat production and marketing in the U.S. Great Plains Author
|Graybosch, Robert - Bob|
|St Amand, Paul|
Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/18/2014
Publication Date: 2/21/2014
Citation: Liu, S., Rudd, J.C., Bai, G., Haley, S.D., Ibrahim, A., Xiu, Q., Hays, D.B., Graybosch, R.A., Devkota, R.N., St Amand, P. 2014. Molecular markers linked to genes important for Hard Winter Wheat production and marketing in the U.S. Great Plains. Crop Science. 54:1304-1321. DOI:10.2135/cropsci2013.08.0564. Interpretive Summary: Wheat diseases and insects as well as abiotic stress can significantly reduce wheat grain yield and end-use quality in the Great Plains. Many resistance genes to these stresses and associated DNA markers to these genes have been identified. Because direct evaluation of wheat resistance to all these stresses is difficult, use of DNA markers to predict presence of these important genes in breeding materials can be a powerful tool for effective selection of these genes in breeding. This study reviewed the availability of DNA markers associated with various genes that are important in US hard winter wheat (HWW) and validated usefulness of some of these markers using a set of diverse wheat lines developed by breeding programs in the Great Plains. These important genes covered in this study include genes conferring resistance to greenbug (7), Russian wheat aphid (4), Hessian fly (9), wheat curl mite (4), leaf, stem and stripe rusts (26), wheat streak mosaic virus WSMV (2), and pre-harvesting sprouting (1); end-use quality genes including high (3) and low (13) molecular weight glutenin subunits, gliadin (3), polyphenol oxidase (2), granule-bound starch synthase (3), and puroindoline (2); and genes for other traits such as plant height (12) and photoperiod sensitivity (1). We found that most markers available are diagnostic in only a few genetic backgrounds. Only these markers that were developed from the gene sequences or alien fragments are highly diagnostic across various backgrounds. This study provides useful information for breeders to use DNA markers effectively in their breeding program.
Technical Abstract: Biotic stresses including diseases [leaf, stem and stripe rusts, and wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV)] and insects [greenbug (GB), Hessian fly (Hf), Russian wheat aphid (RWA) and wheat curl mite (WCM)] significantly affect grain yield and end-use quality of hard winter wheat (HWW, Triticum aestivum L.) in the U.S. Great Plains. Many genes or quantitative traits loci (QTL) have been identified for seedling or adult plant resistance to these stresses. Molecular markers for these genes or QTL have been identified using mapping or cloning. This study summarizes the markers associated with various genes including genes or QTL conferring resistances to insects, such as GB (7), RWA (4), Hf (9), and WCM (4) and diseases including leaf, stem and stripe rusts (26) and WSMV (2); genes or QTL for end-use quality traits such as high (3) and low (13) molecular weight glutenin subunits, gliadin (3), polyphenol oxidase (2), granule-bound starch synthase (3), puroindoline (2), and pre-harvesting sprouting (1); genes on rye translocations with 1AL and 1BL; and genes associated with plant height (12) and photoperiod sensitivity (1). A subset of the markers was validated using a set of diverse wheat lines developed by breeding programs in the Great Plains. These analyses showed that most markers are diagnostic in only limited genetic backgrounds. However, some markers developed from the gene sequences or alien fragments are highly diagnostic across various backgrounds, such as Rht-B1, Rht-D1, Ppd-D1, Glu-D1, Glu-A1, and 1AL.1RS. Knowledge of both genotype and phenotype of advanced breeding lines could help breeders to select right parents to integrate various genes into new cultivars and increase the efficiency of wheat breeding.