|Boncristiani, Humberto - University Of North Carolina|
|Chen, Yanping - Judy|
|Murphy, Charles - Charlie|
|Simone-finstrom, Michael - North Carolina State University|
|Strand, Michelin - Us Army Research|
|Tarpy, David - North Carolina State University|
|Rueppell, Olav - University Of North Carolina|
Submitted to: PLoS One
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/20/2013
Publication Date: 9/5/2013
Citation: Boncristiani, H., Evans, J.D., Chen, Y., Pettis, J.S., Murphy, C.A., Lopez, D.L., Simone-Finstrom, M., Strand, M., Tarpy, D., Rueppell, O. 2013. In-vitro infection of pupae with Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus suggests variation for susceptibility and disturbance of transcriptional homeostasis in honey bees (Apis mellifera). PLoS One. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073429.
Interpretive Summary: Honey bee viruses, including Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), have been tied to colony losses. Here we have developed a general technique for determining the affects of bee viruses on bee health. Using IAPV as a test case we show that bees respond strongly to viral infection. This virus seems to regulate the abilities of bees to generate new proteins. Interestingly, some bees are able to limit this effect, suggesting promising avenues for breeding resistant bees. This information would be of great use to bee breeders and genetic researchers.
Technical Abstract: The ongoing decline of honey bee health worldwide is a serious economic and ecological concern. One major contributor to the decline are pathogens, including several honey bee viruses. However, information is limited on the biology of bee viruses and molecular interactions with their hosts. An experimental protocol to test these systems was developed, using injections of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV) into honey bee pupae reared ex-situ under laboratory conditions. The infected pupae developed pronounced but variable patterns of disease. Symptoms varied from complete cessation of development with no visual evidence of disease to rapid darkening of a part or the entire body. Considerable differences in IAPV titer dynamics were observed, suggesting significant variation in resistance to IAPV among and possibly within honey bee colonies. Thus, selective breeding for virus resistance should be possible. Gene expression analyses of three separate experiments suggest IAPV disruption of transcriptional homeostasis of several fundamental cellular functions, including an up-regulation of the ribosomal biogenesis pathway. These results provide first insights into the mechanisms of IAPV pathogenicity. They mirror a transcriptional survey of honey bees afflicted with Colony Collapse Disorder and thus support the hypothesis that viruses play a critical role in declining honey bee health.