Submitted to: Journal of American Leather Chemists Association
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2013
Publication Date: 9/1/2013
Citation: Ramos, M., Muir, Z.E., Wheeler, T.L., Kalchayanand, N., Mcaloon, A.J. 2013. Economic assessment and pathogenic bacteria inhibition of bovine hide presoaking solutions formulated with enzymes that can remove adobe-type manure. Journal of American Leather Chemists Association. 108(9):319-344.
Interpretive Summary: The hardened manure tightly attached to the hair on bovine hides can cause unwanted holes to the resulting leather products. The hides and leather industry is in need of a presoaking formulation that can remove damaging hardened manure prevalent in winter time when cows are overcrowded in feedlots. By incorporating crude glycerol and enzymes, only a fraction of the commonly used amounts of biocide and surfactants is necessary to generate an efficient manure removal formulation. The cost assessment verified that it will be more environmentally friendly and economical option to implement the new formulations. The industry and US agriculture will benefit from it because manure removal prior to curing is desirable for effective preservation during long storage and shipment of about 33 million bovine hides annually (worth ~$2.2B) from USA to countries where it will be processed to high quality leather.
Technical Abstract: The presoaking formulations that have recently been developed are effective in removing the damaging adobe type bovine manure and eco-friendly because the ingredients used are recycled and required only a quarter of the amount of biocide and surfactant that the industry is commonly using. The goal of this research project is to investigate potential effects of incorporating the enzymes that can attack the hardened manure and could enhance its removal. If an optimal amount of cellulase or xylanase is used individually or a combination of both is included, lowering the concentration of crude glycerol from 10% to 5% is feasible. The combination of cellulase and xylanase appear to be working synergistically at its optimal pH of 5 because lower concentration of each has also demonstrated improvement in manure softening efficiency. For food safety applications, chlorine dioxide also was included in the formulation. Chlorine dioxide is a broad spectrum biocide across a broad pH range and is one of four EPA approved disinfectants for drinking water. Chlorine dioxide was observed to have reduced the manure smell and enhanced the microbial growth inhibition including some pathogenic bacteria. In addition to the positive environmental impact, the cost assessment verified that it will be more economical to implement the newly developed formulations than the standard formulation.