Submitted to: Food & Function
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/29/2013
Publication Date: 11/7/2013
Citation: Park, J.B. 2013. Isolation and quantification of major chlorogenic acids in three major instant coffee brands and their potential effects on H2O2-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and apoptosis in PC-12 cells. Food and Function. 4(11):1632-1638Food Funct. doi: 10.1039/c3fo60138b..
Interpretive Summary: Coffee is a most consumed beverage worldwide. Coffee contains a lot of chlorogenic acids (CHAs). Recent studies suggest beneficial effects of CHAs on obesity-related inflammation which is closely associated with escalating production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). If not properly protected, elevated ROS (e.g., superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical) can potently harm cellular components, eventually leading to the development of several human chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension, kidney disease, cancer, and aging. Therefore, in this paper, three major CHAs (3-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-CQA) were isolated and quantified from instant coffees and their potential anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were investigated in order to determine the CQAs’ capacity to mitigate chronic diseases conditions associated with ROS and inflammation. The outcomes of this study will provide researchers in nutrition, molecular biology, and medicinal fields with new information about the potential anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of CHAs found in coffee.
Technical Abstract: Coffee is a most consumed drink worldwide. In this paper, from three commercially available instant coffees, major chlorogenic acids were isolated and quantified using HPLC and NMR spectroscopic methods. Also, their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were determined using DPPH-radical scavenging, xanthine oxidase and COX assays. In all three coffee samples, three major chlorogenic acids (3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4-CQA), 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA)) and some minor chlorogenic acids (3-O-feruloylquinic acid (3-FQA), 4-O-feruloylquinic acid (4-FQA), 5-O-feruloylquinic acid (5-FQA), 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-diCQA), 3,4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,4-diCQA), and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4,5-diCQA)) were found. Three major CQAs (3-CQA, 4-CQA, and 5-CQA) were further isolated and their chemical structures were confirmed using NMR spectroscopic techniques. Also, their amounts in the samples were quantified using a HPLC method and found to be between 11 and 24 mg per 1 gram of instant coffee. At the concentration of 10 microM, all three CQAs quenched DPPH and/or xanthine oxidase-generated radical species by 24-50% (P < 0.014). Also, the CQAs were able to inhibit COX-I and II enzymes by 38-50 % (P < 0.013) at the concentration of 0.1 microM. This study suggests that CQAs (5-CQA, 3-CQA, 4-CQA) found in coffee are likely to be potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds which may decrease adverse effects associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation.