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Title: Life-style transitions in plant pathogenic Colletotrichum fungi deciphered by genome and transcriptome analyses

item O'CONNELL, R - Max Planck Society
item THON, M - Centro De Investigacion
item HACQUARD, S - Max Planck Society
item VAN THEMAAT, E - Max Planck Society
item AMYOTTE, S - University Of Kentucky
item KLEEMANN, J - Max Planck Society
item TORRES-QUINTERO, M - University Of Kentucky
item DAMM, U - Central Office For Fungal Cultures (CBS)
item BUIATE, E - University Of Kentucky
item EPSTEIN, L - University Of California
item ALKAN, N - Volcani Center (ARO)
item ALTMULLER, J - University Of Cologne
item ALVARADO, BALDERRAMMA - Broad Institute Of Mit/harvard
item BAUSER, C - Biotech Industry Organization
item BECKER, C - University Of Cologne
item BIRREN, B - Broad Institute Of Mit/harvard
item CHEN, Z - Broad Institute Of Mit/harvard
item Crouch, Jo Anne
item DUVICK, J - Pioneer Hi-Bred International
item FARMAN, M - University Of Kentucky
item GAN, P - Advance Science Institute, Riken
item HEIMAN, D - Broad Institute Of Mit/harvard
item HENRISSAT, B - National Council For Scientific Research-Cnrs
item HOWARD, R - Pioneer Hi-Bred International
item KABBAGE, M - Texas A&M University
item KOCH, C - University Of Erlangen
item KUBO, Y - Kyoto University
item LAW, A - University Of Kentucky
item LEBRUN, M - Institut National De La Recherche Agronomique (INRA)
item LEE, Y - Seoul National University
item MIYARA, L - Volcani Center (ARO)
item MOORE, N - University Of Kentucky
item NEUMANN, U - Max Planck Society
item PANACCIONE, D - University Of West Virginia
item PANSTRUGA, R - Max Planck Society
item PLACE, M - University Of Wisconsin
item Proctor, Robert
item PRUSKY, D - Volcani Center (ARO)
item RECH, G - Centro De Investigacion
item REINHARDT, R - Max Planck Society
item ROLLINS, J - University Of Florida
item ROUNSLEY, S - Broad Institute Of Mit/harvard
item SCHARDL, C - University Of Kentucky
item SCHWARTZ, D - University Of Wisconsin
item SHENOY, N - Broad Institute Of Mit/harvard
item SHIRASU, K - Riken Institute
item STUBER, K - Max Planck Society
item SUKNO, S - Centro De Investigacion
item SWEIGARD, J - Pioneer Hi-Bred, Inc
item TAKANO, Y - Kyoto University
item TAKAHARA, H - Max Planck Society
item VANDERDOES, H - Max Planck Society
item VOLL, L - University Of Erlangen
item WILL, I - Max Planck Society
item YOUNG, S - Broad Institute Of Mit/harvard
item ZENG, Q - Broad Institute Of Mit/harvard
item ZHANG, J - Broad Institute Of Mit/harvard
item ZHOU, S - University Of Wisconsin
item DICKMAN, M - Texas A&M University
item SCHULZE-LEFERT, P - Max Planck Society
item MA, L - Broad Institute Of Mit/harvard
item VAILLANCOURT, L - University Of Kentucky

Submitted to: Nature Genetics
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/1/2012
Publication Date: 8/12/2012
Citation: O'Connell, R.J., Thon, M.R., Hacquard, S., Van Themaat, E.V., Amyotte, S., Kleemann, J., Torres-Quintero, M., Damm, U., Buiate, E., Epstein, L., Alkan, N., Altmuller, J., Alvarado, B.L., Bauser, C., Becker, C., Birren, B.W., Chen, Z., Crouch, J., Duvick, J., Farman, M., Gan, P., Heiman, D., Henrissat, B., Howard, R.J., Kabbage, M., Koch, C., Kubo, Y., Law, A., Lebrun, M.H., Lee, Y.H., Miyara, L., Moore, N., Neumann, U., Panaccione, D.G., Panstruga, R., Place, M., Proctor, R., Prusky, D., Rech, G., Reinhardt, R., Rollins, J.A., Rounsley, S., Schardl, C., Schwartz, D.C., Shenoy, N., Shirasu, K., Stuber, K., Sukno, S.A., Sweigard, J.A., Takano, Y., Takahara, H., Vanderdoes, H.C., Voll, L., Will, I., Young, S., Zeng, Q., Zhang, J., Zhou, S., Dickman, M.B., Schulze-Lefert, P., Ma, L.J., Vaillancourt, L.J. 2012. Life-style transitions in plant pathogenic Colletotrichum fungi deciphered by genome and transcriptome analyses. Nature Genetics. 44:1060-1065.

Interpretive Summary: Fungi cause billions of dollars damage to agricultural crops and natural resources in the United States each year. How fungi cause disease is not known especially at the very basic level of genes. Using a model fungal pathogen the process of causing disease was investigated to determine which genes control the beginning steps of infecting a plant. It was determined that the plant and the fungus interact at the genetic level with the fungus causing the plant to produce signals that determine which genes of the fungus are expressed. This controls the ability of the fungus to infect the plant. Determining the genetic basis for how fungi infect plants and the interactions between a fungus and its host will be useful to scientists who are working to control diseases caused by fungi.

Technical Abstract: Colletotrichum species are devastating fungal pathogens of major crop plants worldwide. Infection involves differentiation of specialized cell-types associated with host surface penetration, growth inside living host cells (biotrophy) and tissue destruction (necrotrophy). Here we report genome and transcriptome analyses of C. higginsianum (Ch) infecting Arabidopsis thaliana and C. graminicola (Cg) infecting maize (Zea mays). Comparative genomics showed these fungi have similar sets of pathogenicity-related genes, but families of secreted effector proteins, pectin-degrading enzymes, secondary metabolism (SM) enzymes, transporters and peptidases are markedly expanded in Ch. Genome-wide expression profiling supported the functional importance of these expanded gene families and revealed that they are transcribed in successive waves linked to each pathogenic transition: genes encoding effectors and SM enzymes are induced early, before penetration and during biotrophy, while hydrolase and membrane transporter genes are up-regulated later, at the switch from biotrophy to necrotrophy. Our findings demonstrate that the pre-invasion perception of plant-derived signals dramatically reprograms early fungal gene expression, and disclose novel functions for fungal infection structures.