Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/1/2010
Publication Date: 12/1/2010
Citation: Lichtenstein, A. 2010. Nutrition and CVD risk. In: Eckel, R., editor. Metabolic Risk for Cardiovascular Disease. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: There is a wide range of dietary approaches purported to decrease the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Some were first identified early in the 20th century whereas others have been recognized more recently. Some have stood the test of time and others have not. None are without controversy,both past and present. We now understand that what appears to be inconsistent evidence to support a relationship between diet and CVD risk reduction is likely attributable to previously unrecognized confounders such as biological variability, co-linearity of diet variables, interaction among diet and biological factors, and differences in the strength of the relationship between clinical outcomes and biomarkers. It is difficult, if not impossible, to directly assess the efficacy of dietary interventions on CVD risk because of the difficulty in modifying dietary intakes of large groups of individuals over long periods of time and the cost associated with such efforts. Hence, most dietary interventions with the intent of reducing CVD risk are evaluated on the basis of biomarkers. Traditionally, plasma lipid, lipoprotein and apoprotein concentrations were used as biomarkers to evaluate diet interventions intended to reduce CVD risk. More recently, a wider range of biomarkers is used. Due to the amount of data available, for the most part, this chapter will be limited to a discussion of diet-lipoprotein relationships.