Submitted to: Parasite Immunology
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/9/2011
Publication Date: 9/19/2011
Citation: Hoorens, P., Rinaldi, M., Mihi, B., Dreseen, L., Grit, G., Meeusen, E., Li, R.W., Geldhof, P. 2011. Galectin-11 induction in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle following nematode and protozoan infections. Parasite Immunology. 33:669–678. Interpretive Summary: Gastrointestinal parasites are a major cause of disease and economical loss in livestock industries worldwide. Limited knowledge in our understanding of protective immunity has hindered the development of vaccines against all major parasites in a given locale. In this study, we conducted an in-depth analysis of expression of a cell adhesion molecule, Galectin-11, along the bovine gastrointestinal tract during infections of nematodes and protozoa. Our findings will facilitate our understanding of basic regulatory processes in host immunity and development of a pan-vaccine that confers protection against all major parasite species.
Technical Abstract: Galectin-11 (LGALS11) has been suggested to play an important role in protective immunity against gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. However, in cattle this molecule has not been characterized in detail. In the current study, it was shown that transcription of LGALS11 was highly inducible in the bovine abomasal mucosa after an Ostertagia ostertagi infection. The protein was expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of epithelial cells and secreted in the mucus. LGALS11 induction was associated with the proliferative and dedifferentiated status of cultured abomasal epithelial cells, independently from the presence of parasite antigens. In addition, LGALS11 transcript was also detected in the abomasal lymph nodes where it was shown to be transcribed in MHCII+ cells; however transcription levels were not altered after O. ostertagi infection. In addition, LGALS11 was also induced in the small intestine by different types of parasites, including the nematode Cooperia oncophora and the protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis. The induction of LGALS11 in different cell types including epithelial and immune cells, as well as its presence in different cellular compartments and its extracellular secretion, indicate that this molecule may exert a variety of functions important during parasite infection, including cell differentiation, adhesion, tissue repair and immune cell signaling.