|Wang, Thomas - Tom|
Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/2/2010
Publication Date: 10/12/2010
Citation: Xie, Z., Liu, W., Huang, H., Slavin, M., Zhao, Y., Whent, M., Blackford, J., Lutterodt, H., Zhou, H., Chen, P., Wang, T.T., Liangli, Y. 2010. Chemical composition of five commercial gynostemma pentaphyllum samples and their radical scavenging, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory properties. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58(21):11243-11249. Interpretive Summary: Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino is a perennial liana plant which grows in Asia. Its aerial part has been traditionally used in teas, as food, and in folk medicines with ascribed health benefits, including anti-cardiovascular and anticancer effects. The precise composition and efficacy among commercially available Gynostemma pentaphyllum preparations derived from different growing conditions is unclear. Five Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) samples were investigated and compared for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity, antiproliferative activity, and anti-inflammatory effects. Extracts (50% acetone, 75% ethanol, and 100% ethanol) of the five GP samples (GP1-5) differed in their total phenolic, saponin, and flavonoid contents and in their rutin and quercetin concentrations, compounds thought to contribute to biological activity of GP. Biological assays for antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory effects were also conducted on the extracts of the five samples. These extracts differed in their biological activities. The 100% ethanol extracts showed antiproliferative activity against human colon cancer cells and dose-dependent inhibition of inflammatory markers. GP1, with highest flavonoid content, appeared to have the highest biological activity. The results from this study provide a baseline for composition and expected biological activiites of commercial GP preparations. The results can be used to facilitate development of a standardized G. pentaphyllum preparation for use in studies to improve human health. This work will benefit basic, as well as translational research.
Technical Abstract: Five Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) samples were investigated: their chemical composition and their antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory effects were compared. Extracts (50% acetone, 75% ethanol, and 100% ethanol) of the five GP samples (GP1-5) differed in their total phenolic, saponin, and flavonoid contents and in their rutin and quercetin concentrations. The highest level of total flavonoids was 63.5 mg of rutin equiv/g in GP4, and the greatest total phenolic content was 44.3 mg of gallic acid equiv/g in GP1 with 50% acetone as the extraction solvent. GP2 had the highest total saponin content of 132.6 mg/g with 100% ethanol as the extraction solvent. These extracts also differed in their scavenging capacity against DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, although they all showed significant radical scavenging capacity. The 100% ethanol extracts also showed dose-dependently strong inhibition of IL-6 and Ptgs2 mRNA expression and weak inhibition of TNF-R mRNA expression. In addition, GP1 had the highest antiproliferative activity at 3.2 mg equiv/mL concentration in HT-29 human colon cancer cells.