|Lee, Kyung Woo|
Submitted to: Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/5/2011
Publication Date: 7/21/2011
Citation: Lee, K., Lillehoj, H.S., Jeong, W., Jeoung, H., An, D. 2011. Avian necrotic enteritis: Experimental models, climate change, and vaccine development. Poultry Science. 90:1381-1390. Interpretive Summary: In the United States, Clostridium-related diseases, such as gangrenous dermatitis (GD) and necrotic enteritis (NE), and Eimeria coccidiosis are among the most important infectious diseases in chickens and turkeys. Due to increasing government regulation of drugs in animal production, there is an urgent need to develop rational, alternative, and integrated management strategies not only to control, but also to prevent, both of these diseases. Better understanding of host-pathogen, as well as pathogen-pathogen (Clostridium-Eimeria), interactions in poultry will be required to realize these goals. In this review paper, ARS scientists in collaboration with scientists from NVRQS, discuss current knowledge on NE and discuss some of the challenges that we face to develop prevention strategy against NE. This information will benefit scientists in industry, and academia in developing effective strategies to control clostridium infections.
Technical Abstract: This review summarizes recent developments in disease models, pathogenesis, host immunity, risk factors, and vaccine development for Clostridium perfringens infection of poultry and necrotic enteritis (NE). The increasing trends of legislative restrictions and voluntary removal of antibiotic growth promoters worldwide has already impacted, and will continue to affect, poultry production and health. The rising incidence of Clostridium infections and development of NE in chickens is associated with the withdrawal of antibiotics during production. Scientific evidence has linked the use of antibiotics with alterations in the gut microbiota and innate immunity. Thus, better understanding of host- and environmentally-related factors on C. perfringens infection and development of NE will be necessary for more effective control strategies against this and other Clostridium-related diseases. These studies require a reliable and reproducible disease model for characterization of C. perfringens pathogenesis and host protective immunity. Finally, there is a need to address the impact of global climate change on disease development, particularly in the context of the avian response to heat stress.