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Title: Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape

item MYLES, SEAN - Cornell University
item BOYKO, ADAM - Stanford University
item Owens, Christopher
item BROWN, PATRICK - Cornell University
item FABRIZIO, GRASSI - University Of Milan
item Aradhya, Mallikarjuna
item Prins, Bernard - Bernie
item REYNOLDS, ANDY - Cornell University
item CHIA, JER-MING - Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
item Ware, Doreen
item BUSTAMANTE, CARLOS - Stanford University
item Buckler, Edward - Ed

Submitted to: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS)
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/9/2010
Publication Date: 1/18/2011
Citation: Myles, S., Boyko, A., Owens, C.L., Brown, P., Fabrizio, G., Aradhya, M.K., Prins, B.H., Reynolds, A., Chia, J., Ware, D., Bustamante, C., Buckler IV, E.S. 2011. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 10.1073/pnas.1009363108.

Interpretive Summary: Grape is on of our oldest and most important domesticated fruit crops. Genome-wide genetic differences were investigated in a large sample of diverse grape samples, including several samples of the wild progenitor species of the cultivated grape. Our results show that during grape domestication very little genetic diversity was lost, contrary to what is found in many other crop plants. Although, there is a large amount of genetic diversity still present in the pool of cultivated grape, we also show that many of the existing grape varieties are very closely related. This finding has potentially major implications for future grape breeding efforts. This work also reveals a number of previously unknown relationships between well-known and widely planted grape varieties.

Technical Abstract: The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. We characterized genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera, and its wild relative, Vitis sylvestris. We find genetic support for a Near East origin of Vitis vinifera and present evidence of introgression from local V. sylvestris as the grape moved into western Europe. We show that grape domestication involved a weak bottleneck: high levels of genetic diversity have been maintained in V. vinifera for thousands of years by vegetative propagation. This considerable genetic diversity, however, is contained within a complex network of close pedigree relationships among cultivars that has been generated by breeding. We show that the pedigree structure of V. vinifera has been shaped by geography and by different breeding strategies for table and wine grapes. Moreover, we reveal several previously unknown relationships among the world’s most popular grape cultivars. Our results suggest that substantial genetic varation has been maintained in the grape subsequent to domestication and that breeders have tremendous natural diversity at their disposal for the generation of improved wine and table grapes.