Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/28/2010
Publication Date: 10/12/2010
Citation: Xie, Z., Zhao, Y., Chen, P., Yu, L. 2010. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis and rutin and quercetin compositions in the leaf and whole-plant samples of di- and tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 7:3042-3049. Interpretive Summary: Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino is a traditional Chinese herb that has shown antioxidant and anticancer activity and decreases inflammation. Flavonoids, chemical compounds found in this herb, are considered to be contributors to these beneficial effects. To obtain the chemical pattern of flavonoids present in different types of G. pentaphyllum (those with two or with four sets of genes or genotypes) and in different parts of plants, an approach called fingerprinting was used requiring the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array detector (DAD) and mass spectrometry (MS). Eight flavonoids were identified, among which rutin and quercetin were quantified. The data on flavonoid content was translated into chemical patterns by principal component analysis (PCA), a statistical method of looking at the data. The 8 flavonoids identified were used as characteristic peaks for all the tested samples. Chemical patterns from the two different genotypes were significantly different. Combining the fingerprinting with the analysis for content can be used for quality assessment of materials used in G. pentaphyllum-derived dietary supplements.
Technical Abstract: Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino is a traditional Chinese herb that has shown antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory activities. Flavonoids are considered to be major contributors to these beneficial effects. To obtain chemical pattern of flavonoids in G. pentaphyllum of different genotypes (diploids vs tetraploids) and different parts of plants, the extraction condition was optimized and a fingerprinting approach was established by means of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and mass spectrometry (HPLC–DAD–MS). Eight flavonoids were identified, among which rutin and quercetin were quantified. The chemical patterns were further analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). Eight common characteristic peaks were found in all the tested samples. the chemical pattern of the tetraploid genotype was significantly different from diploid whereas different parts of plants showed less difference. The pattern of standard reference was similar to diploids. The combination of chromatographic fingerprint and quantification analysis can be used for quality assessment and verification of G. pentaphyllum-derived dietary ingredients.