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Title: Differential soil acidity tolerance of dry bean genotypes

item FAGERIA, N - Embrapa
item Baligar, Virupax
item MEIO, L - Embrapa
item DE OLIVEIRA, J - Embrapa National Research Center

Submitted to: Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/20/2010
Publication Date: 5/1/2012
Citation: Fageria, N.K., Baligar, V.C., Meio, L.C., De Oliveira, J.P. 2012. Differential soil acidity tolerance of dry bean genotypes. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 43:1523-1531.

Interpretive Summary: Soil acidity is a major yield limiting factor for bean production in the tropical regions of the world. Using soil acidity tolerant varities is an important strategy to improve bean yields and reduce the cost of production. Greenhouse experiments conducted with acid soils showed that dry bean varities differ significantly in plant weight and grain yield. A scale based on grain yields can differentiate the range of acidity tolerance among bean varities. Acid tolerant varities identified in this research will be useful in the development of high yielding bean cultivars for acid infertile soils of South America. Such bean cultivars could help to reduce costly inputs such as lime and fertilizers for resource poor farmers of the tropics. These results will be used by researches, extension personnel and ultimately farmers.

Technical Abstract: Soil acidity is a major yield limiting factors for bean production in the tropical regions. Using soil acidity tolerant genotypes is an important strategy in improving bean yields and reducing cost of production. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating 20 dry bean genotypes for their tolerance to soil acidity constraints. Inceptisol soil was amended with dolomitic lime (6 g dolomitic lime kg-1 soil) to achieve low acidity (pH = 5.9) and without lime (zero lime kg-1 soil,) to achieve high acidity (pH = 4.8) levels to evaluate bean genotypes. At both the acidity levels genotypes differed significantly in shoot dry weight and grain yield. Shoot dry weight and grain yield were significantly decreased at the high acidity level compared to low acidity level. Grain yield was more sensitive to soil acidity compared to shoot dry weight. Hence, grain yield was used as tolerance index to classify genotypes to soil acidity and was designated as genotypes tolerance index (GTI). Based on GTI, 55% genotypes were classified as tolerant, 40% were classified as moderately tolerant and remaining were grouped as susceptible to soil acidity. The genotype CNFC 10410 was most tolerant and genotype CNFP 10120 was most susceptible to soil acidity. Number of pods and grain harvest index were significantly and positively associated with grain yield. The improvement in grain yield may be related to neutralization of soil Al3+ and H+ ions toxicity by lime addition. At harvest soil extractable P and K increased with the reduction of soil acidity.