Submitted to: Cereal Foods World
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/30/2010
Publication Date: 10/24/2010
Citation: Kweon, M., Donelson, T.S., Slade, L., Levine, H. 2010. Development of a Pancake-Making Method for a Batter-Based Product. Cereal Foods World. 55:A26. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Cake and pancake are major batter-based products made with soft wheat flour. A standardized baking method for high-ratio cake has been widely used for evaluating the cake-baking performance of soft wheat flour. Chlorinated flour is used to make high-ratio cake, and the cake formula contains relatively high levels of sugar and fat. In contrast, a pancake-baking method has not yet been explored much or implemented as an AACCI Official Method, due to several issues, such as the absence of standard analytical criteria for pancake-making evaluation, a wide range of potential formulas and mixing procedures, and a wide range of consumer preferences in eating quality. As a preliminary investigation, the effects of leavening acids and type of fat have been explored, in an effort to identify preferred ingredients and a formula. Flow distance for batter viscosity, pancake diameter and height, and pancake texture were measured. Validation of the method was performed using various sample flours. As a diagnostic formula to distinguish differences in flour performance for pancake baking, soda (2.25g), MCP (0.38g), and SAPP 28 (2.7g) were selected as the leavening system. Pancake-making performance using liquid canola oil was very similar to that using solid shortening, with a minor adjustment in water level. Pancake-making performance for two samples of unchlorinated flour or their blends could be predicted from their SRC values. When the SRC values in all four solvents were lower for flour A than for flour B, the flow distance of the batter and the diameter of the pancake were both greater for flour A, but the pancake height was smaller. Chlorinated flours showed a different trend in pancake geometry. With increasing extent of flour chlorination, both pancake diameter and height decreased. Excessively chlorinated flour (pH 4) produced an even greater decrease in pancake height.