Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract only
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/26/2009
Publication Date: 11/18/2009
Citation: Codling, E.E., Chaney, R.L. 2009. Framework of risk assessment in relation to FGD-gypsum use as agricultural amendment. Meeting Abstract. Interpretive Summary: .
Technical Abstract: Due to the concerns by EPA of air pollution from coal fired power plants, the industry are building and retrofitting existing facilities to remove more impurities from the environment. Industry has introduced removal of fly ash contaminates before SO2 removal, allowing generation of FGD-gypsum with substantially lower levels of trace elements. As a result, some coal byproducts contain higher levels of heavy metals such as arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury while others such as FGD-gypsum contains less. The FGD-gypsum needs to be thoroughly investigated for metals bioavailabilty to humans and animals and its potential risk. Risk assessment of this material is needed in order to determine acceptable uses in agriculture. The objective is to develop a framework of protocols that are needed to be followed in order to develop a scientifically based risk assessment for FGD use in agriculture. For example, sample collection, storage, analysis and experiments must be carried out in a manner that will provide accurate results for conducting the risk assessment. The risk assessment will provide information to federal and state agencies in their determination of the acceptability of FGD-gypsum use in agriculture.