Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/12/2009
Publication Date: 12/8/2009
Citation: Manthey, J.A., Perkins-Viazie, P. 2009. Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of ß-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 57:10825-10830. Interpretive Summary: Five varieties of mangoes were evaluated for their total antioxidant content. The varieties, 'Haden', 'Kent', 'Keitt', and 'Tommy Atkins', were very similar in their antioxidant contents, while 'Ataulfo' was much higher. There were very little differences exerted by harvest dates or harvest locations. There were large fruit-to-fruit variations in the antioxidant contents within the same harvest locations and dates.
Technical Abstract: Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in the peel, seeds, and leaves of mango, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxidant contents of the fruit pulp. Five varieties of mangoes from four countries were evaluated with multiple harvests over a year to compare the ß-carotene, ascorbic acid, phenolic, and total antioxidant levels of the fruit pulp, and to compare the phenolic profiles of the individual varieties. Only soft fruit (0.5 to 1 N compression) and a minimum of 10% soluble solids were used for these measurements to minimize ripeness variability. Ascorbic acid ranged from 11 to 134 mg/100 g pulp puree, and ß-carotene varied from 5 to 30 mg/kg among the five varieties. Total phenolic content ranged from 19.5 to 166.7 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g puree. The varieties, 'Tommy Atkins', 'Kent', 'Keitt', and 'Haden' had similar total phenolic contents, averaging 31.2±7.8 mg GAE/100g puree, whereas 'Ataulfo' contained substantially higher values. Similar trends were observed in the total DPPH radical scavenging content for the five varieties. In contrast, country of origin and harvest dates had far less influence on these parameters. 'Ataulfo' contained significantly higher amounts of mangiferin and ellagic acid than the other four varieties. Large fruit-to-fruit variations in the concentrations of these compounds occurred within sets of mangoes of the same cultivar with the same harvest location and date.