|MEMON, AYAZ - Sindh Agricultural University|
|MEMON, NAJMA - Sindh Agricultural University|
|Luthria, Devanand - Dave|
|BHANGER, MUHAMMAD - Sindh Agricultural University|
|PITAFI, AMANAT - Karachi University|
Submitted to: Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/7/2009
Publication Date: 10/20/2009
Citation: Memon, A.A., Memon, N., Luthria, D.L., Bhanger, M.I., Pitafi, A.A. 2010. Phenolic acids profiling and antioxidant potential of mulberry (Morus laevigata W., Morus nigra L., Morus alba L.) leaves and fruits grown in Pakistan. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. 60(1)25-32.
Interpretive Summary: This research was done in collaboration with researchers from the National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Pakistan. All experiments for this research project were carried out in Pakistan. Phenolic acids profile, sugar content, and the antioxidant activity of the leaves and fruits of three mulberry species (Morus alba L., Morus nigra L., and Morus laevigata W.) grown in Pakistan were determined due to significant interest in natural antioxidants. This is the first report on the identification of phenolic acids and antioxidant activity in the extracts of three cultivars of mulberry plants grown in Pakistan. This information will be of considerable value to the commercial producers of mulberry trees in the country.
Technical Abstract: Mulberry trees are distributed throughout Pakistan. Besides the use of mulberry in forage and food for animals, it is also used as herbal medicine. The ojbective of this study was to determine phenolic acids profile, sugar content, and the antioxidant activity of the leaves and fruits of three mulberry species (Morus alba L., Morus nigra L., and Morus laevigata W.) grown in Pakistan. Dried fruits and leaves of the three mulberry plant species were extracted by three different methods. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC with diode array detection for phenolic acids. Antioxidant activity and sugar content were determined using spectrophotometric assays. The structure of chlorogenic acid was confirmed by LC-MS-MS analysis. The major phenolic acids were identified as gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, chlorogenic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, and m-coumaric acids. Chlorogenic acid was the predominent phenolic acid in all leaf samples collected from three mulberry species and optimum extraction of chlorogenic acid was achieved using 80% aqueous methanol with ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Total phenolic compounds as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay were in the range of 3.89 to 11.79 mM/100g gallic acid equivalent, whereas antioxidant activities by DPPH assay ranged from 22.85 – 76.88 µM/100g quercetin equivalent. The concentration of sugars in different samples ranged between 36.56 to 82.15 mM/100g sucrose equivalent. This is the first report of the identification of phenolic acids and antioxidant activity in the extracts of three cultivars of mulberry plants grown in Pakistan. This information will be of considerable value to the commercial producers of mulberry trees in the country.