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Title: A Scientific note on Varroa mites found in East Africa; Threat or Opportunity

Author
item Frazier, Maryann - Pennsylvania State University
item Muli, Eluid - International Centre Of Insect Physiology And Ecology
item Conklin, Tracy - Pennsylvania State University
item Schmehl, Daniel - Pennsylvania State University
item Torto, Baldwyn - International Centre Of Insect Physiology And Ecology
item Frazier, James - Pennsylvania State University
item Tumlinson, James - Pennsylvania State University
item Evans, Jay
item Raina, Suresh - International Centre Of Insect Physiology And Ecology

Submitted to: Apidologie
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/30/2009
Publication Date: 1/10/2010
Citation: Frazier, M., Muli, E., Conklin, T., Schmehl, D., Torto, B., Frazier, J., Tumlinson, J., Evans, J.D., Raina, S. 2010. A Scientific note on Varroa mites found in East Africa; Threat or Opportunity. Apidologie. 41:463-465.

Interpretive Summary: Honey bees are an important part of worldwide agriculture, pollinating a substantial fraction of crops. Honey bees suffer from numerous threats including Varroa mites and viruses. Wild honey bee populations in the U.S. have virtually disappeared since the parasitic mite Varroa destructor was introduced. There have been no reports of Varroa mites across much of Africa. Here we present evidence for the presence of Varroa in several African countries. This is alarming given the risk of mites to that continent's beekeeping industry. Interestingly, preliminary evidence suggests that mite levels are not extremely high in African colonies, perhaps indicating a natural resistance among these honey bee subspecies. This information can help regulators determine how to reduce the spread of mites within and from Africa, and might point to new methods for determining an important resistance trait on bees.

Technical Abstract: Varroa mites have devastated Apis mellifera L. honeybee populations wherever they co-occur around the world, yet in East Africa these mites may have finally met their match. Varroa destructor Anderson and Truman (Acari:Varroidae) was found in Kenya and Tanzania for the first time in early 2009, but beekeepers surveyed there do not observe that these mites are having any negative impacts on their bees’ survival or productivity. In contrast, Varroa mites are blamed for much of the decline in North American and European honey bee populations. The mites in East Africa are identical with the primary lineage of Varroa worldwide. If A. mellifera colonies in Africa succumb to Varroa as they have in other parts of the world, the results could be devastating to both agricultural production and non-agricultural ecosystems. Nevertheless, early evidence suggests that mite levels are being held in check in these African populations, perhaps reflecting strong resistance mechanisms found in African bees.