Submitted to: Environmental Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/31/2009
Publication Date: 12/15/2009
Citation: Nehme, M., Keena, M., Zhang, A., Baker, T., Hoover, K. 2009. Attractiveness of Anoplophora glabripennis male-produced pheromone and plant volatiles. Environmental Entomology. 38(6):1745-1755.
Interpretive Summary: The Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) is an invasive species that attacks and eventually kills a wide variety of healthy hardwood trees. It is a recent invader of the United States and Europe from Asia and threatens to cause billions of dollars in losses to forestry and the nursery industry. To date, detection of ALB infestation relies on visual inspection, which is labor intensive and inefficient. A more effective tool is needed to detect and monitor this insect pest. In a collaborative effort, we re-evaluated attractive activity of two male-specific compounds with and without plant volatiles in the laboratory and greenhouse bioassays. Our results indicated that these volatiles are attractive to ALB adults. The efficient trap design and lure combination will provide a tool to APHIS and Forest Service for ALB infestation detection and population monitoring to manage this invasive species in the field.
Technical Abstract: The male-produced pheromone of Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), which is an equal blend of 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol and 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanal, was used in laboratory bioassays and in the greenhouse to determine its potential for attracting A. glabripennis adults. In modified ‘walking wind tunnels’, virgin females were most attracted to the alcohol component and to the pheromone blend. Virgin males were repelled by the pheromone at the lowest and highest amounts offered (0.05 and 2'g). Y-olfactometer bioassays also showed a significantly higher attraction of females to the pheromone and its components compared to males. However, males were more attracted to plant volatiles than females. Out of 12 plant volatiles tested, (-)-linalool, cis-3-hexen-1-ol and linalool oxide were attractive to both sexes, while 3-carene and trans-caryophyllene were only attractive to males. Combining the male pheromone blend with (-)-linalool alone or with cis-3-hexen-1-ol attracted significantly more males than did the pheromone alone. We tested four trap designs in the quarantine greenhouse with 8 different lures. The Intercept panel traps and the hand-made screen sleeve traps caught more beetles than the Plum curculio and Lindgren funnel traps. Intercept traps worked best when baited with cis-3-hexen-1-ol whole screen sleeve traps were most attractive when baited with (-)-linalool. Our findings provide evidence of the attractiveness of the A. glabripennis male-produced pheromone to adults and suggest that it has a role in mate-finding. It is also a first step towards the development of an efficient trap design and lure combination to monitor A. glabripennis infestations in the field.