Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/3/2009
Publication Date: 7/1/2009
Citation: Kweon, M., Louise, S., Harry, L. 2009. Exploration of functionality of low glycemic impact sugars and polyols using DSC, RVA, and cookie baking [abstract]. 4th International Dietary Fiber Conference.
Technical Abstract: Consumers' interest in healthy cookies is increasing, including expectations for prebiotic nutritional benefits and low glycemic impact. Plasticization of flour polymers is critical to mixing and baking for baked goods. However, concentrated sugar solutions act as anti-plasticizers compared to water. Thus, gluten development during mixing and starch gelatinization/pasting during baking are delayed or prevented. The resulting absence of readily digestible starch enables production of healthier cookies if sugars and polyols with lower glycemic impact are used to replace sucrose, the traditional sugar for cooking baking. For this study, sucrose (as a reference) and potential sucrose-replacing sugars (tagatose and ribose) and polyols (maltitol, lactitol, xylitol, and polydextrose) were used to explore the effects of sugar-replacer type on DSC, RVA, and wire-cut cookie baking. DSC results using pre-dissolved 50% w/w sugar solutions showed retardation of gelatinization, compared to water, in the order water < ribose < tagatose < xylitol < sucrose maltitol < lactitol < polydextrose. RVA results using pre-dissolved 50% w/w sugar solutions showed retardation of the onset of starch pasting, compared to water, in exactly the same order as observed by DSC for retardation of starch gelatinization. Baking wire-cut cookies formulated using 66%S and 63 TS gave cookie width: maltitol lactitol sucrose > polydextrose > xylitol > ribose tagatose; cookie length: maltitol lactitol sucrose > polydextrose > xylitol > tagatose ribose; and cookie height: polydextrose < maltitol < lactitol < sucrose < xylitol < tagatose < ribose. Cookies formulated with xylitol, tagatose, and ribose showed snap-back, diagnostic for gluten development during mixing. In contrast, cookies formulated with maltitol, lactitol, and especially polydextrose, showed facilitated flow and elongation in the direction of sheeting. Notably, only for the cookies that exhibited snap-back, cookie height was inversely correlated with cookie length, but not with width. Among these potential sugar-replacers, maltitol and lactitol exhibited the most similar baking responses to sucrose, as demonstrated by timelapse photography during baking. The results suggested that those polyols could be used most easily as sucrose substitutes to produce traditional wire-cut cookies with lower glycemic impact. The baking behavior of polydextrose was also sufficiently similar to that of sucrose, so that a blend of polydextrose with maltitol or lactitol could replace sucrose with the additional benefit of a prebiotic soluble fiber.