|GREEN, PAMELA - University Of Delaware|
|Grunwald, Niklaus - Nik|
Submitted to: Nature
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/31/2009
Publication Date: 9/1/2009
Citation: Hass, B., Kamoun, S., Zody, M.C., Jiang, R.H., Handsaker, R.E., Cano, L.M., Grabherr, M., Kodira, C.D., Raffaele, S., Torto-Alalibo, T., Bozkurt, T.O., O'Neill, K.O., Ah-Fong, A.M., Alvarado, L., Anderson, V.L., Armstrong, M., Avrova, A., Baxter, L., Benyon, J., Boevink, P.C., Bos, J.I., Bulone, V., Cai, G., Cakir, C., Carrington, J.C., Chawner, M., Costanzo, S., Fahlgren, N., Fugelstad, J., Gilroy, E.M., Gnerre, S., Green, `.J., Greenville-Briggs, L.J., Griffith, J., Gupta, S., Horn, K., Horner, N.R., Hu, C., Huitema, E., Jeong, D., Jones, A., Jones, J.D., Jones, R.W., Karisson, E., Lamour, K., Liu, Z., Ma, L., Maclean, D., Marcus, C., Mcdonald, H., Mcwalters, J., Meijer, H.J., Morgan, M., Morris, P.F., Munro, C.A., Ospina-Giraldo, M., Pinzon, A., Pritchard, L., Ramsahove, B., Ren, Q., Restrepo, S., Roy, S., Sadanandom, A., Savidor, A., Schornack, S., Schwartz, D.C., Schumann, U.D., Schwessinger, B., Seyer, L., Sharpe, T., Silvar, C., Song, J., Studholme, D.J., Sykes, S., Vondervoort, P.J., Vipaporn, P., Wawra, S., Weide, R., Win, J., Young, C., Zhou, S., Fry, W., Meyers, B.C., West, P.V., Ristaino, J., Govers, F., Birth, P.R., Whisson, S., Judelson, H.S., Nusbaum, C., Bollmann, S.R., Grunwald, N.J. 2009. The genome sequence of the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Nature. 461:393-398.
Interpretive Summary: Plants grown as crops provide the world with food. In many countries, food production is concentrated in growing of one or two types of crop plants. When these plants become sick due to infections, they can cause starvation of people relying on these plants. Millions of people died in Ireland during the mid 1800’s when their food crop, potatoes, became sick from a fungus. The fungus still causes damage to world potato crops. The parts of the genetic map of this fungus have been put together in a map to provide directions for possible ways to control this fungus. This information will be valuable for scientists studying control of the fungus, and eventualy for the world populations that rely on potato production as a food source.
Technical Abstract: Phytophthora infestans is the most destructive pathogen of potato and a model organism for the oomycetes, a distinct lineage of fungus-like eukaryotes that are related to photosynthetic organisms such as brown algae and diatoms. Here, we report the genome sequence of P. infestans. The ~240 Mb genome is the largest and most complex in the chromalveolate lineage and its expansion results from a proliferation of repetitive DNA that accounts for ~74% of the genome. Comparison to two other Phytophthora genomes revealed rapid turnover and significant expansions in P. infestans genes encoding particular families of secreted proteins, many of which are induced in planta. Most notable among these are host translocated effectors including the RXLR class and a novel family of effectors termed Crinklers, for which we demonstrate function inside plant cells. Crinkler genes exhibit high levels of recombination and encode modular proteins with divergent C-terminal domains. Functional analysis showed that several of these Crinkler domains triggered cell death and altered immunity when expressed inside plant cells. We conclude that the highly dynamic and expanded genome of P. infestans accounts for its pathogenic success and fast adaptation to host plants.