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Title: The genome sequence of the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans

item Hass, Brian
item Kamoun, Sophien
item Zody, Michael
item Jiang, Rays
item Handsaker, Robert
item Cano, Liliana
item Grabherr, Manfred
item Kodira, Chinnappa
item Raffaele, Sylvain
item Torto-alalibo, Trudy
item Bozkurt, Tolga
item O'neill, Keith
item Ah-fong, Audrey
item Alvarado, Lucia
item Anderson, Vicky
item Armstrong, Miles
item Avrova, Anna
item Baxter, Laura
item Benyon, Jim
item Boevink, Petra
item Bos, Jorunn
item Bulone, Vincent
item Cai, Guohong
item Cakir, Cahid
item Carrington, James
item Chawner, Megan
item Costanzo, Stefano
item Fahlgren, Noah
item Fugelstad, Johanna
item Gilroy, Eleanor
item Gnerre, Sante
item Green, Pamela
item Greenville-briggs, Laura
item Griffith, John
item Gupta, Sridhara
item Horn, Karolyn
item Horner, Neil
item Hu, Chia-hui
item Huitema, Edgar
item Jeong, Dong-hoon
item Jones, Alexandra
item Jones, Jonathan
item Jones, Richard
item Karisson, Elinor
item Lamour, Kurt
item Liu, Zhenyu
item Ma, Lijun
item Maclean, Daniel
item Marcus, Chibucos
item Mcdonald, Hayes
item Mcwalters, Jessica
item Meijer, Harold
item Morgan, Morgan
item Morris, Paul
item Munro, Carol
item Ospina-giraldo, Manuel
item Pinzon, Andres
item Pritchard, Leighton
item Ramsahove, Bernard
item Ren, Qinhu
item Restrepo, Silvia
item Roy, Sourav
item Sadanandom, Ari
item Savidor, Alon
item Schornack, Sebastian
item Schwartz, David
item Schumann, Ulrike
item Schwessinger, Ben
item Seyer, Lauren
item Sharpe, Ted
item Silvar, Christina
item Song, Jing
item Studholme, David
item Sykes, Sean
item Vondervoort, Peter
item Vipaporn, Phuntamart
item Wawra, Stephan
item Weide, Rob
item Win, Joe
item Young, Carolyn
item Zhou, Shiguo
item Fry, William
item Meyers, Blake
item West, Peter
item Ristaino, Jean
item Govers, Francine
item Birth, Paul
item Whisson, Stephen
item Judelson, Howard
item Nusbaum, Chad
item Bollmann, Stephanie
item Grunwald, Niklaus - Nik

Submitted to: Nature
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/31/2009
Publication Date: 9/1/2009
Publication URL:
Citation: Hass, B., Kamoun, S., Zody, M.C., Jiang, R.H., Handsaker, R.E., Cano, L.M., Grabherr, M., Kodira, C.D., Raffaele, S., Torto-Alalibo, T., Bozkurt, T.O., O'Neill, K.O., Ah-Fong, A.M., Alvarado, L., Anderson, V.L., Armstrong, M., Avrova, A., Baxter, L., Benyon, J., Boevink, P.C., Bos, J.I., Bulone, V., Cai, G., Cakir, C., Carrington, J.C., Chawner, M., Costanzo, S., Fahlgren, N., Fugelstad, J., Gilroy, E.M., Gnerre, S., Green, `.J., Greenville-Briggs, L.J., Griffith, J., Gupta, S., Horn, K., Horner, N.R., Hu, C., Huitema, E., Jeong, D., Jones, A., Jones, J.D., Jones, R.W., Karisson, E., Lamour, K., Liu, Z., Ma, L., Maclean, D., Marcus, C., Mcdonald, H., Mcwalters, J., Meijer, H.J., Morgan, M., Morris, P.F., Munro, C.A., Ospina-Giraldo, M., Pinzon, A., Pritchard, L., Ramsahove, B., Ren, Q., Restrepo, S., Roy, S., Sadanandom, A., Savidor, A., Schornack, S., Schwartz, D.C., Schumann, U.D., Schwessinger, B., Seyer, L., Sharpe, T., Silvar, C., Song, J., Studholme, D.J., Sykes, S., Vondervoort, P.J., Vipaporn, P., Wawra, S., Weide, R., Win, J., Young, C., Zhou, S., Fry, W., Meyers, B.C., West, P.V., Ristaino, J., Govers, F., Birth, P.R., Whisson, S., Judelson, H.S., Nusbaum, C., Bollmann, S.R., Grunwald, N.J. 2009. The genome sequence of the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Nature. 461:393-398.

Interpretive Summary: Plants grown as crops provide the world with food. In many countries, food production is concentrated in growing of one or two types of crop plants. When these plants become sick due to infections, they can cause starvation of people relying on these plants. Millions of people died in Ireland during the mid 1800’s when their food crop, potatoes, became sick from a fungus. The fungus still causes damage to world potato crops. The parts of the genetic map of this fungus have been put together in a map to provide directions for possible ways to control this fungus. This information will be valuable for scientists studying control of the fungus, and eventualy for the world populations that rely on potato production as a food source.

Technical Abstract: Phytophthora infestans is the most destructive pathogen of potato and a model organism for the oomycetes, a distinct lineage of fungus-like eukaryotes that are related to photosynthetic organisms such as brown algae and diatoms. Here, we report the genome sequence of P. infestans. The ~240 Mb genome is the largest and most complex in the chromalveolate lineage and its expansion results from a proliferation of repetitive DNA that accounts for ~74% of the genome. Comparison to two other Phytophthora genomes revealed rapid turnover and significant expansions in P. infestans genes encoding particular families of secreted proteins, many of which are induced in planta. Most notable among these are host translocated effectors including the RXLR class and a novel family of effectors termed Crinklers, for which we demonstrate function inside plant cells. Crinkler genes exhibit high levels of recombination and encode modular proteins with divergent C-terminal domains. Functional analysis showed that several of these Crinkler domains triggered cell death and altered immunity when expressed inside plant cells. We conclude that the highly dynamic and expanded genome of P. infestans accounts for its pathogenic success and fast adaptation to host plants.