Location: Grape Genetics ResearchTitle: Mapping of photoperiod induced growth cessation in the wild grape vitis riparia michx. using microsatellite markers) Author
Submitted to: Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/24/2009
Publication Date: 3/15/2009
Citation: Garris, A.J., Clark, L., Owens, C.L., Mckay, S., Luby, J., Matthiason, K., Fennel, A. 2009. Mapping of photoperiod induced growth cessation in the wild grape vitis riparia michx. using microsatellite markers. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 134:261-272. Interpretive Summary: The ability of plants to stop growing and enter dormancy before winter is an important aspect of environmental adaptation. Some woody use cues from the growing environment such as drought, nutrient deficiency, shorter days of fall, and cold temperatures as triggers for growth cessation. In grapevines, the appropriate timing of growth cessation is also a key objective in breeding new grape varieties suitable for the eastern United States. At the northern edges of its range, the wild grape species Vitis Riparia will stop producing new leaves when the days are shorter than 13 hours; in other words, they are day length sensitive. Most of the other grape species are not day length sensitive. To determine the genetic control of this trait, the day length sensitive grape V. riparia was crossed with the day length insensitive hybrid wine grape ‘Sevyal’. Their offspring were studied for the timing of growth cessation in the greenhouse, where favorable growing temperatures were maintained but natural decreases in day length were imposed, and in the field, where natural fluctuations in day length, temperature, and rainfall all occurred. A genetic map was constructed using 120 genomically distributed molecular markers and 6 candidate genes in a population of 119 offspring. This genetic map allowed us to test which areas of the genome are associated with variation in the timing of growth cessation. A region on chromosome 13 was very important for the timing of growth cessation in the greenhouse, but a region on chromosome 11 was very important in the field. This suggests that day length sensitivity is primarily controlled by a single gene (or a few genes), but that in the field the day length was less important than other environmental factor for triggering growth cessation.
Technical Abstract: In grapevines, the timing of growth cessation in the fall is an important aspect of adaptation and a key objective in breeding new grape varieties suitable for continental climates. Growth cessation is a complex biological process that is initiated by environmental cues such as day length and temperature as well as water and nutrient availability. The genetic control of growth cessation in grapevines was studied by mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in a hybrid grape population. An F2 mapping population was developed by selfing a single F1 plant that had resulted from crossing an accession of the North American species Vitis riparia Michx. and the wine cultivar ‘Seyval’. A linkage map was constructed using 115 SSR markers and 6 candidate genes in a population of 119 F2 progeny. The markers provided coverage of the 19 Vitis linkage groups with an average distance between markers of 8.6 cM. The critical photoperiod for growth cessation in lateral buds for the parents and F2 progeny was determined in a replicated field trial in 2001 and 2002 and under controlled photoperiod treatments in a greenhouse in 2002, 2003, and 2004. QTL analysis using Composite Interval Mapping identified a single major QTL for critical photoperiod in field and greenhouse trials. However, the field and greenhouse QTLs mapped to different linkage groups in the two different environments, suggesting the presence of non-photoperiodic cues for induction of growth cessation in the field. In the greenhouse, where non-inducing temperatures were maintained, a QTL on LG 13 explained 80.0-96.6% of the phenotypic variance of critical photoperiod for growth cessation, while in the field, where vines experienced natural fluctuations in temperature and rainfall in addition to the naturally decreasing photoperiod, a QTL on LG 11 explained 85.4-94.3% of phenotypic variance.