Submitted to: International Journal of Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/6/2012
Publication Date: 10/10/2012
Citation: Lloyd, T., Alvarado, C.Z., Berrang, M.E. 2012. Organic acid formulation and dip to control listeria monocytogenes in hot dogs. International Journal of Poultry Science. 11(7):469-473.
Interpretive Summary: Hot dogs are a common food that is fully cooked and intended to be a ready to eat product. However, in a commercial processing plant, these products undergo handling after cooking. Listeria monocytogenes can colonize meat cooking plants and the potential exists for this human pathogen to contaminate hot dogs after cooking and before packaging. A series of organic acid based food grade ingredients were tested as either part of the formulation or as a post cook dip treatment to lessen L. monocytogenes contamination of hot dogs. Ingredients tested included potassium lactate, sodium lactate and sodium diacetate. Inoculated hot dogs were treated and stored for 0,7,14,21, 28, 42 and 56 days before sampling. All treatments lessened the numbers of L. monocytogenes compared to water treated controls. Hot dogs formulated with a combination of sodium lactate and sodium diacetate and dipped in sodium lactate with or without the addition of sodium diacetate was the most effective treatment to control L. monocytogenes. This research describes an effective and acceptable means to limit L. monocytogenes on fully cooked ready to eat meat products. Commercial meat processors can use these data to design optimal formulation and treatment schemes for control of bacterial pathogens in their products.
Technical Abstract: Processed meat products such as frankfurters, smoked sausage, and deli meat have gained popularity because consumers have less time for food preparation and demand more convenient meat items. Because these products are handled post processing and may not be reheated before consumption, the presence of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is a concern. In this study, a multi-hurdle approach utilizing organic acids alone or in combination in the raw product and as a post-cook dip were evaluated for their ability to suppress the growth of LM. Beef frankfurters were formulated with an organic acid as an ingredient, cooked, cooled, inoculated with Streptomycin-resistant LM, and then dipped in organic acid treatments. Treatments included potassium lactate (PL) in the raw product and sodium lactate (SL) in the dip, PL with SL/sodium diacetate (SD) dip, SL/SD with SL dip, and SL/SD in the raw product and in the dip. A positive (inoculated) and negative (non-inoculated) control were dipped in distilled water. On day 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 hotdogs were sampled for LM. The SL/SD with SL dip and SL/SD with SL/SD dip effectively inhibited the growth of LM in the frankfurters when compared to the other treatments. All treatments significantly decreased LM over time when compared to the positive control. Therefore, these organic acids can be utilized in the meat and poultry industry, to extend the lag phase of LM and create a safer ready-to-eat (RTE) product.