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Title: Genetic analysis of Israel Acute Paralysis Virus: distinct clusters are circulating into the United States.

item Palacios, Gustavo
item Hui, Jeffery
item Quan, Phenix-lan
item Kalkstein, Abby
item Honkavuori, K
item Bussetti, A
item Conlan, Sean
item Evans, Jay
item Chen, Yanping - Judy
item Vanengelsdoorp, Dennis
item Efrat, H
item Pettis, Jeffery
item Cox-foster, Diana
item Holmes, Edward
item Briese, Thomas
item Lipkin, Ian

Submitted to: Journal of Virology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/14/2008
Publication Date: 7/1/2008
Citation: Palacios, G., Hui, J., Quan, P., Kalkstein, A.L., Honkavuori, K.S., Bussetti, A.V., Conlan, S., Evans, J.D., Chen, Y., Vanengelsdoorp, D., Efrat, H., Pettis, J.S., Cox-Foster, D.L., Holmes, E.C., Briese, T., Lipkin, I.W. 2008. Genetic analysis of Israel Acute Paralysis Virus: Distinct clusters are circulating into the United States. Journal of Virology. 82:6209-6217.

Interpretive Summary: Viruses have been considered as a possible primary or contributing cause of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a mysterious disappearance and extensive die-off of honey bees that represents a new threat to the beekeeping and pollination industries. Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV), a species that was originally identified in honey bees in Israel and had not been previously reported in the U.S., had a strong correlation with CCD. We conducted genetic analysis of IAPV from bees collected in different geographic locations in order to gain insight into different viral strains of honey bee disease. Our results suggested that differences in genetic makeup of IAPV viral strain may have implications for their abilities to cause disease in honey bees. The results have relevance to scientists, regulators, and beekeepers seeking to mitigate recent bee losses.

Technical Abstract: Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is associated with colony collapse disorder of honey bees. Nonetheless, its role in the pathogenesis of the disorder and its geographic distribution are unclear. Here, we report phylogenetic analysis of IAPV obtained from bees in the United States, Canada, Australia, and Israel and the establishment of diagnostic real-time PCR assays for IAPV detection. Our data indicate the existence of at least three distinct IAPV lineages, two of them circulating in the United States. Analysis of representatives from each proposed lineage suggested the possibility of recombination events and revealed differences in coding sequences that may have implications for virulence.