Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/11/2008
Publication Date: 1/1/2010
Citation: Qureshi, N., Blaschek, H.P. 2010. Clostridia and Process Engineering for Energy Generation. In: Vertes, A.A., Qureshi, N., Blaschek, H.F., Yukawa, H., editors. Biomass to Biofuels. Strategies for Global Industries. United Kingdom: Wiley and Sons. p. 347-358.
Technical Abstract: This chapter summarizes various cultures and process technologies that are used to produce butanol from traditional and more economically attractive substrates such as wheat straw (WS) and distillers dry grains and solubles (DDGS). The successful use of these plant materials has made butanol fermentation look economically attractive. When using WS as a substrate, simultaneous hydrolysis, fermentation, and product recovery (process integration) have been successfully performed in a single reactor. Production of butanol from lignocellulose (economically available substrate) in such integrated systems is expected to make this fermentation economically viable. Use of integrated technology and agricultural residues reduces both process and substrate costs. Additionally, this removes butanol from fermentation broth simultaneously. It should be noted that some residues produce pretreatment and/or hydrolysis inhibitors that inhibit cell growth and fermentation. It is suggested that the problem of generation of pretreatment and/or hydrolysis inhibitors of lignocellulosic biomass be addressed. Use of several product recovery technologies such as liquid-liquid extraction, gas stripping, perstraction, and pervaporation has been successful in laboratory scale bioreactors and is expected to play a major role in reviving this fermentation. By employing in-line/in-situ product recovery systems during butanol fermentation, substrate inhibition (due to high concentration of carbon source), and butanol toxicity to the culture are drastically reduced.