Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/10/2005
Publication Date: 3/1/2008
Citation: Simmons, G.S., Pickett, C., Goolsby, J., Brown, J., Gould, J., Hoelmer, K.A., Chavarria, A. 2008. Mass-rearing Bemisia parasitoids for support of classical and augmentative biological control programs. In: Gould, J., Hoelmer, K., Goolsby, J., editors. Classical Biological Control of Bemisia tabaci in the United States - A Review of Interagency Research and Implementation. Vol. 4. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Springer Netherlands. p. 111-119. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Three systems for production of Bemisia parasitoids in the genera Eretmocerus and Encarsia are described: a smaller scale system for initial production and evaluation of the numerous cultures collected during the foreign exploration effort and two systems for larger scale production to support augmentative biological control demonstration projects and establishment of new species for classical biological control. Efficient production systems depended on providing high-quality host plants that were free of pests, good environmental control, and careful control and monitoring of the whitefly host population. When these conditions were met the greenhouse based production systems could produce millions of parasitoids per week, and production levels as high as 172,000 parasitoids/m2/generation were achieved. After harvesting, processing techniques allowed for separation of unparasitized whitefly and removal of debris, producing a very clean product with as little as 0.5% whitefly contamination.