Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/10/2005
Publication Date: 3/1/2008
Citation: Kirk, A., Lacey, L.A., Goolsby, J. 2008. Foreign exploration for insect natural enemies of Bemisia for use in biological control in the USA: A successful program. In: Gould, J., Hoelmer, K., Goolsby, J., editors. Classical Biological Control of Bemisia tabaci in the United States - A Review of Interagency Research and Implementation. Vol. 4. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Springer Netherlands. p. 17-31.
Technical Abstract: European Biological Control Laboratory scientists (USDA-ARS) and collaborators sent 130 shipments of Bemisia species and natural enemies from 28 countries to the Mission Biological Control Laboratory (MBCL) in Mission Texas.More than 235 collections resulted in 13 species of parasitoids and several predators for evaluation in the USA. Climate modeling software was used to focus on collecting areas with climates similar to Arizona, California and Texas. Field crops, glasshouse crops and weeds were searched and many host plant species yielded parasitized Bemisia. Field parasitism by Bemisia parasitoids was shown to be 39–44% in Spain and 0–67% in Thailand. Taxonomists identified Bemisia biotypes, parasitoids and predators; geneticists characterized Bemisia and natural enemy species.This information was used for evaluation, release, and experimentation.