Submitted to: American Bee Journal
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/2/2007
Publication Date: 12/3/2007
Citation: Chen, Y., Evans, J.D. 2007. Historical presence of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in the United States. American Bee Journal. 147(12):1027-1028.
Interpretive Summary: Honey bees are of great agricultural importance in the U.S. and worldwide and are constantly facing threats from parasites and pathogens. Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), is a recent syndrome that has devastated a substantial fraction of U.S. apiaries. One virus, Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus, has been implicated in CCD. Here we show that this virus was present in U.S. bees for several years prior to CCD and to the recent importation of bees from outside the U.S. While not ruling out a recent arrival of more virulent forms of this virus, this work suggests that more work is needed to tie bee importations to CCD. The results have relevance to scientists, regulators, and beekeepers seeking to mitigate recent bee losses.
Technical Abstract: During the winter of 2006-2007, a rare and extreme syndrome of honey bee losses was observed. This syndrome, labeled Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), was defined by a rapid depopulation of adult bees in colonies, often leaving substantial amounts of standing brood. In an extensive metagenomic survey, one virus, Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV), was strongly associated with CCD. Using DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, we show that this virus has been present in U.S. bees since prior to CCD, and that U.S. isolates of IAPV are not substantially different from those found in Israel These results can be used to further study the importance of strains of this virus on honey bee disease.