Submitted to: Nature Reviews Microbiology
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/1/2007
Publication Date: 12/1/2007
Citation: Anthony, R., Rutitzky, L., Urban Jr, J.F., Stadecker, M., Gause, W. 2007. Protective Immune Mechanisms in Helminth Infection. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 7(12)975-987.
Technical Abstract: Important insights have been gained in our understanding of how immune responses mediate resistance to helminths and control associated pathological responses. Although similar cells and cytokines are evoked in response to infection by helminths as diverse as nematodes and schistosomes, the components of the response that mediate protection are dependent on the particular parasite. In this review we examine recent findings regarding mechanisms of protection during helminth infections elucidated in murine models and discuss the implications in terms of future therapies. Information is included on 1) Helminth parasite associated immune responses and reduced severity of certain harmful inflammatory autoimmune and allergic diseases; 2) Studies of tissue-dwelling parasites in murine models that develop Th2-type granulomas consisting of cellular infiltrates that resemble Th1-type granulomas; 3) Host protection through mediating helminth expulsion, or through controlling otherwise pathological inflammatory responses driven by Th1 and Th17 cells; 4) Th2 cytokines derived from innate cells; 5) Th2 cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-13, that orchestrate a potent Th2-type response by direct stimulation of both bone-marrow derived and non bone-marrow derived cell populations; 6) Complex and multi-faceted Th2-type responses elicited to a wide variety of helminths, but only certain components that are effective against a particular species; and 7) The discovery of new effector cell types and molecules contributing to the host protective Th2-type response provides additional targets for the development of novel immunotherapies and vaccines against helminths.