Submitted to: Quimica
Publication Type: Abstract only
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/20/2007
Publication Date: 5/10/2007
Citation: Anderson, R.A. 2007. Chromium supplementation alleviates risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome. Quimicam Clinica 26(S1):16. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Metabolic syndrome has been applied to a clustering of risk factors of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases including elevated blood lipids, elevated glucose, elevated blood pressure, proinflammatory state including increased C-reactive protein and TNF-alpha, and prothrombotic state including anomalies in coagulant factors. Suboptimal intakes of the essential nutrient, chromium, are characterized by elevated blood glucose, insulin resistance, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL. These are also signs and symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. Improvements due to increased intake of chromium are related to the degree of insulin sensitivity with larger improvements in people with more impaired insulin function. People with type 2 diabetes maintained on sulfonylurea agents consuming supplemental chromium displayed decreased risk factors of the metabolic syndrome including improved glucose, insulin sensitivity, visceral fat, and body weight gain compared with the placebo group. Increases in TNF-alpha, a cytokine known to inhibit the sensitivity and action of insulin, and oxidative stress due to high glucose, are inhibited by chromium in monocytic cells. The mechanism of action of chromium is associated with an increase in insulin binding, increased insulin receptor number, increased insulin receptor kinase and increased phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, and IRS-1 and inhibition of the negative effects of nitric oxide on insulin signaling. In summary, cell culture, experimental animal, and human studies demonstrate that improved chromium nutrition leads to improvements in abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome.