Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/10/2006
Publication Date: 11/10/2006
Citation: Lillehoj, H.S. 2006. Functional genomics approaches to study host pathogen Functional genomics approaches to study host pathogens interactions to mucosal pathogens.Proceedings of the Korean Society of Poultry Science Meeting, Nov. 10, Suwon, Korean. Interpretive Summary: Avian coccidiosis is the major parasitic disease of poultry with substantial economic burden estimated to cost the industry greater than $3 billion in annual losses worldwide. In feed medication for prevention and treatment contributes a major portion of those costs and losses are also due to mortality, malabsorption, inefficient feed utilization and impaired growth rate in broilers. At present, the lack of long term and efficient vaccines, the increasing incidence of drug resistant Eimeria, and the escalating public anxiety over chemical residues in meat and eggs mandate the development of alternative control methods. In this comprehensive presentation at the upcoming Korean Society of Poultry science meeting, an ARS scientist will provide latest information on the development of functional genomics strategy for disease prevention against mucosal pathogens of poultry. This paper will also provide comprehensive understanding of poultry immune system and novel means to elicit effective immunity against major pathogens of poultry that will benefit poultry scientists and vaccine industry.
Technical Abstract: Coccidiosis is the major parasitic disease of poultry affecting the intestinal mucosa and is caused by the apicomplexan protozoa Eimeria. Coccidiosis seriously impairs the growth and feed utilization of infected animals resulting in loss of productivity. Conventional disease control strategies rely heavily on chemoprophylaxis and to a certain extent on live vaccines. These factors combined inflict tremendous economic losses to the world poultry industry in excess of $3 billion annually. Increasing regulations and bans on the use of anticoccidial drugs coupled with the associated costs in developing new drugs and live vaccines urges the need for developing novel approaches and alternative control strategies for coccidiosis. Recent technological advances in high throughput molecular approaches to identify disease resistance genes and molecular/cell biological pathways associated with complex biological phenomenon now enable the development of an alternative strategy to combat these diseases. Recently, application of functional genomics has led to the identification of avian genes associated with resistance to coccidiosis. In this presentation, I will describe new findings using the chicken macrophage and intestinal cDNA microarrays that led to the identification of host genes which influence innate immune responses to Eimeria in the gut. Enhanced understanding of how Eimeria interact with host macrophages and intestinal immune system at the molecular and cellular levels will contribute to novel control strategies against coccidia. These EST sequences from Eimeria stimulated intestinal IEL transcripts will be used to study global gene expression profiling and to identify novel immune related genes during avian coccidiosis and in other enteric diseases of poultry. Those genes with significant differences can also be used as potential candidate genes influencing disease susceptibility traits.