Submitted to: Annual Meeting of the Institute of Food Technologists
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/6/2006
Publication Date: 6/26/2006
Citation: Callahan, J.A., Liu, M., Bowker, B.C., Eastridge, J.S., Paroczay, E.W., Solomon, M.B. 2006. Effect of interchanging components of the Warner-Bratzler apparatus on texture parameters of various food products [abstract]. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting Book of Abstracts. Paper No. 039I-03. June 24-28, 2006, Orlando, Florida.
Technical Abstract: The Warner-Bratzler shear test is an objective method used to determine meat tenderness by placing the test sample on the base fixture and shearing with a v-notched blade. Few studies have evaluated the effect of age of the shear set (SS) components (blade and base) or the effect of replacing a component on shear force values. This experiment tested four SS combinations from two Warner-Bratzler shear apparatus (24 years old and new) attached to an Instron test machine using four food products which have different shear values and are typically used for descriptive panel training. SS combinations [old blade/old base (O), old blade/new base (ON), new blade/new base (N), and new blade/old base (NO)] were used to shear beef sticks, whole almonds, Twizzler candy and cheddar cheese (15 shears/product; 4 replications). Shear force (kgf) and energy (kgf-mm) were recorded. Comparing O vs. N sets, O had significantly higher shear force for whole almonds (5.42 vs. 4.96 kgf) and Twizzlers (4.08 vs. 3.69 kgf) in comparison to N. No differences were found for cheese for any SS combinations. Beef sticks sheared with ON, had significantly higher (7.68 kgf) shear force than other SS combinations which were not different from each other (7.12, 7.17 and 7.23 kgf). Total energy was not different for almonds or cheese with any SS combinations. Changing from the old to new base significantly affected total energy for beef sticks (50.60 vs. 64.76 kgf-mm, respectively) and Twizzlers (29.68 vs. 24.76 kgf-mm, respectively). In summary, different SS combinations did not perform consistently across all four food products. SS combinations that used the old blade were slightly higher in shear force than the new blade. Based on this study, age had a significant effect on SS replacement components and care should be taken when changing components of the apparatus.