Submitted to: Office International Epizootics Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests
Publication Type: Book / chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/19/2005
Publication Date: 7/9/2008
Citation: Register, K.B. 2008. Atrophic rhinitis of swine. In: Vallat, B., Pastoret, P., editors. Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. 6th edition. Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties. Chapter 2.8.2 p. 1083-1091. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Atrophic rhinitis is an infectious disease of swine characterized by purulent nasal discharge, shortening or twisting of the snout, atrophy of the turbinate (conchal) bones and reduced productivity. The most severe progressive form is caused by infection with toxigenic strains of Pasteurella multocida alone or in combination with Bordetella bronchiseptica. Infections with B. bronchiseptica alone can cause a mild to moderate form with nonprogressive turbinate bone atrophy. Environmental and management factors also contribute to the severity and incidence of this disease. The diagnosis of atrophic rhinitis depends on clinical and post-mortem observations assisted by the recovery and characterization of P. multocida and B. bronchiseptica in affected swine. P. multocida and B. bronchiseptica can be identified by traditional biochemical tests. Recently developed assays based on the use of DNA probes or polymerase chain reaction provide sensitive and specific detection for those laboratories with the capability to perform them. Toxigenicity of P. multocida isolates can be demonstrated by testing for cytotoxicity in cultured cells. A commercially available toxin-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is now widely used in some areas of the world to differentiate toxigenic from nontoxigenic isolates. Several vaccines are available commercially that contin bacterins of B. bronchiseptica and a mixture of toxigenic and/or nontoxigenic strains of P. multocida, or a toxoid derived from P. multocida or from a recombinant Escherichia coli.