Submitted to: American Chemical Society National Meeting
Publication Type: Abstract only
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/28/2005
Publication Date: 8/28/2005
Citation: Desjardins, A.E., Maragos, C.M., Jarosz, A. 2005. Emerging mycotoxins: the case for nivalenol. American Chemical Society National Meeting. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: The fungus Fusarium graminearum contaminates cereal grain with 8-keto trichothecene mycotoxins, mainly nivalenol and 4-deoxynivalenol. In most animal studies to date, nivalenol has proven more toxic than deoxynivalenol and is thus of added concern for food safety. DNA sequence analysis indicates that nivalenol is the ancestral trait, and that deoxynivalenol-production in F. graminearum evolved by point mutations and deletions in the cytochrome P450 that is responsible for C4-oxygenation. Limited surveys to date indicate that nivalenol contaminates grain worldwide, but is rare in North America, where deoxynivalenol-producing populations are now dominant. Effective risk management of nivalenol requires development and application of improved methods to monitor this mycotoxin in grain. Risk management of nivalenol is also affected by the complex genetic structure of F. graminearum populations, which are known to be highly variable on a worldwide basis with regard to patterns of trichothecene production and virulence on maize, wheat, and other cereal crops.