Submitted to: Environmental Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/19/2005
Publication Date: 2/1/2006
Citation: Zhu, J., Zhang, A., Park, K., Baker, T., Lang, B., Jurenka, R., Lang, B., Obrycki, J.J., Graves, W.R., Pickett, J. 2006. Sex pheromone of the soybean aphid, aphis glycines matsumura, and its potential use in semiochemical-based control. Environmental Entomology. 35(2):249-257.
Interpretive Summary: The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is a newly invasive insect species that seriously threatens U.S. soybean production. It is the only aphid pest to develop large colonies on soybeans, Glycine max, in North America. The control of this aphid species has focused on the applications of pesticides, but this is not totally effective. An attractant, called a pheromone, produced by soybean aphid could help to attract and trap males and some females, and thus reduce damage in the field. This study reports chemical identification of the sex pheromone of the soybean aphid and behavioral responses of males, and females in the field to a synthetic version. This could result in development of efficient products for monitoring soybean aphid outbreaks and possible usages for future confusion and mating disruption to suppress their populations on soybeans.
Technical Abstract: The newly invasive soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, has seriously threatened U.S. soybean production in North America, after having spread to over 20 US states and southern provinces in Canada. Control of this aphid species has been focused on the applications of insecticides, which are not a long-term solution to soybean aphid pest management. In the fall, soybean aphids start producing winged female aphids (gynoparae) that search for their overwintering host plant, the common buckthorn, Rhamnus cathartica. The gynoparae then produce pheromone-emitting wingless female offspring (oviparae) that attract male aphids. In the present study, we report results of chemical identification of the soybean aphid sex pheromone composition via analyses using gas chromatography-electroantennography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Behavioral activities of males and gynoparous females in the field were also characterized. Specific soybean aphid pheromone component compositions for reducing overwintering populations or in monitoring traps to predict outbreaks during the spring is also discussed.