Submitted to: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/3/2005
Publication Date: 10/1/2005
Citation: Zhang, A., Leskey, T.C., Bergh, J.C., Walgenbach, J. 2005. Sex pheromone of the dogwood borer (dwb), synanthedon scitula. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 31(10):2463-2479.
Interpretive Summary: The dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula (Harris) is an important pest of dogwood. It also causes severe problems of at least 19 species of fruit, nut, and ornamental trees in the eastern United States and Canada, and is becoming an increasingly important pest of apple. The control of DWB has totally relied on the applications of pesticides. Utilizing attractant (called pheromone) produced by the female to attract males to behaviorally manage DWB is an alternative. The pheromone can be used to trap and determine how many insects are present. It can also be manipulated to confuse them and disrupt mating. In this study we determined the chemical make-up of the males response to a synthetic version. The synthetic version might result in more efficient control products in the future. The results will also bring about substantial economic savings and environmental protection and will be useful to Pest Managers.
Technical Abstract: The female sex pheromone of dogwood borer (DWB) Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was determined to be a blend of (Z,Z)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate (Z,Z-3,13-ODDA), (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienyl acetate (E,Z-2,13-ODDA), and (Z,E)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate (Z,E-3,13-ODDA) by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The ratio of the pheromone components was estimated to be 88 : 6 : 6 (v/v) of the Z,Z-3,13-ODDA, E,Z-2,13-ODDA, and Z,E-3,13-ODDA, respectively (trinary blend). Preliminary field assays demonstrated that the major sex pheromone component, Z,Z-3,13-ODDA, itself was attractive. A blend of Z,Z-3,13-ODDA with 1~3% of E,Z-2,13-ODDA (binary blend) was significantly more attractive than the single-component. A third component, Z,E-3,13-ODDA, was sometimes observed in GC-EAD and significantly enhanced attraction of the binary blend under most conditions. Lures containing 1 mg of binary and trinary blends attracted 18 and 28 times more male DWB moth, respectively, than caged virgin females in field trials. However, attraction to the trinary lures could be significantly inhibited by addition of as little as 0.5-1% of a geometric isomer, E,Z-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate (E,Z-3,13-ODDA) (pheromone inhibitor). In a period of 12 wk in 2004, more than 60,000 males were captured in Pherocon 1C and Delta (Trécé Inc., Salinas, CA) traps baited with synthetic pheromone blends in six apple orchards in Virginia, West Virginia, and North Carolina.