|DALLOUL, RAMI - U MD COLLEGE PARK MD
Submitted to: Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/25/2005
Publication Date: 4/20/2005
Citation: Min, W., Dalloul, R.A., Lillehoj, H.S. 2005. Application of biotechnological tools for coccidia vaccine development. Korean Journal of Veterinary Science. 5:279-288.
Interpretive Summary: Intestinal infections such as coccidiosis, salmonellosis, and cryptosporidiosis are prevalent in commercially-bred chickens and inflict severe economic losses to the poultry industry. Many avian diseases are currently controlled by chemoprophylaxis in ways that promote development of drug resistant pathogens and at great cost to the poultry industry. Prophylactic drug usage also creates unnecessary anxiety in a consuming public already concerned with chemical residues in food. Consequently, the past two decades have witnessed great interest in alternative strategies to control avian diseases. In this paper, ARS scientists in collaboration with a scientist at Sunchon University describe a promising technology to develop new vaccines based upon in depth analysis of the genomes and proteomes of multiple Eimeria species, and the knowledge of host protective immune mechanisms which impact the development of resistance to infection with Eimeria species. It is anticipated that increased knowledge on the interaction between parasites and host will stimulate the development of novel immunological and molecular biological concepts in the control of intestinal parasitism which is crucial for design of new approaches against coccidiosis. The results described in this paper will help poultry industry to devise logical vaccine strategy against avian coccidiosis.
Technical Abstract: Coccidiosis is a ubiquitous intestinal protozoan infection of poultry seriously impairing the growth and feed utilization of infected animals. Conventional disease control strategies have relied on prophylactic medication but the U.S. industry still looses over $700 million annually. Due to the continual emergence of drug resistant parasites in the field and increasing incidence of broiler condemnations due to coccidia, novel approaches are urgently needed to reduce economic losses from this disease. Understanding the basic biology of host-parasite interactions and protective intestinal immune mechanisms as well as characterization of host and parasite genes and proteins involved in eliciting protective host responses are crucial for the development of new control strategy. This review will highlight recent developments in coccidiosis research with special emphasis on the utilization of cutting edge techniques in molecular/cell biology, immunology, and functional genomics in coccidia vaccine development. Information from these research will enhance our understanding of host-parasite biology, mucosal immunology and host and parasite genomics in the development of a practical and effective control strategy against Eimeria and design of nutritional interventions to maximize growth under the stress caused by vaccination or infection