Submitted to: Agricultural Research International Conference Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2003
Publication Date: 10/2/2003
Citation: Kirk, A.A., Widmer, T.L., Campobasso, G., Carruthers, R.I., Dudley, T. 2003. The potential contribution of natural enemies from Mediterranean Europe to the management of the invasive weed arundo donax (graminae:arunidinae) in the usa. In: Proceedings of the California Invasive Plant Council Symposium, Vol. 7 (ed. Pirosko, C.) pp. 62-68. California Invasive Plant Council, Berkley, CA, USA.
Technical Abstract: Arundo donax, Giant Reed, is a widespread invasive weed in California and south western U.S. Outside the U.S., it ranges from the Canaries to northern Myanmar. It is a biocontrol target because of its intransigence to cultural and chemical control and its disastrous impact on the local ecology. Foreign exploration in Nepal and India revealed little sign of natural, control whereas collections made around the Mediterranean resulted in 3 Hymenoptera, 5 Diptera, a scale species and several plant pathogens, which cause death of shoots, tips and dormant buds. On the average, 56% of an Arundo stand is dead in the region around Montpellier France. Preliminary results suggest mortality may be attributed to Diptera (38%), and scale insects (14%), with Hymenoptera and fungal pathogens also playing a role. Infested areas of California and parts of the Mediterranean basin are excellent climatic matches. These results suggest that the Mediterranean is likely to be a profitable area to explore for natural enemies. Characterization of Arundo samples from Europe, Africa, Asia, North America and Australia may elucidate its center of origin and the origin of the Arundo stands in the U.S.