Submitted to: Experimental Biology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/28/2004
Publication Date: 9/1/2004
Citation: Koskinen, H., Krasnov, A., Rexroad III, C.E., Gorodilov, Y., Afanasyev, S., Molsa, H. 2004. The 14-3-3 proteins in the teleost fish rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss). Journal Experimental Biology 207(19):3361-8.
Interpretive Summary: Efforts aimed at the genetic improvement of agriculturally important species include the identification of genes controlling production traits. Genes which are thought to play such roles are termed 'candidate genes' and are characterized with respect to their genetic variation and function. As the 14-3-3 proteins are known to be involved in many cellular functions, we identified ten of these genes in rainbow trout and characterized their expression patterns during stress and embryonic development. Understanding the roles of these proteins will benefit scientists working to understand embryonic development and responses to stress at the molecular level.
Technical Abstract: The 14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved eukaryotic proteins that are involved in many cellular functions. We report identification of ten 14-3-3 genes in rainbow trout, which are apparent duplicates of five ancestral genes; four of which are specific for fish. The duplicated 14-3-3 genes diverged rapidly and their cladogram is markedly different from the phylogenetic tree. The mean rate of nonsynonymous divergence of trout 14-3-3s is one order of magnitude greater than that of mammalian genes. Genome duplication in salmonid fish relaxed functional constraints and selection favored establishment of novel isoforms. Difference in tissue distribution of 14-3-3 was minor, however results of 31 microarray experiments showed divergence of expression profiles, which was related to structural divergence of the duplicates. Remarkable coordination of expression of ten isoforms was observed in study of stress response in the brain. Expression profiles of the 14-3-3 genes correlated with a large group of chaperones and genes involved in cell communication and signal transduction. We studied embryonic expression of 14-3-3 genes and found abundant transcripts in the rapidly growing and differentiating parts of embryos, such as eyes, tail bud and yolk syncytium during somitogenesis and gills and pectoral fins after completion of somitogenesis. Consistent expression was observed in the neural crest, which is known for exclusively high morphogenetic potential.