Submitted to: Immunological Reviews
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/1/2004
Publication Date: 10/30/2004
Citation: Liu, Z., Liu, Q., Pesce, J., Anthony, R., Lamb, E., Whitmire, J., Hamed, H., Morimoto, M., Urban Jr, J.F., Gause, W.C. 2004. Requirements for the development of IL-4producing T cells during intestinal nematode infections: what it takes to make a Th2 cell in vivo. Immunological Reviews 201:57-74.
Technical Abstract: Components of the type 2 immune response may mediate both host protection against helminthic parasites and harmful allergic responses. A central player in this response is the Th2 effector cell, which produces IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and other Th2 cytokines during the primary and memory response. Specific aspects of the parasite that trigger Th2 cell differentiation and also the cell types and cell surface and secreted molecules that provide the immune milieu required for the development of Th2 effector cells and also Th2 memory cells are not yet well understood. They will probably vary with the particular helminth or other Ag inducing the Th2 response. We have used intestinal nematode parasites as adjuvants to promote naïve nonparasite Ag-specific T cells to differentiate into Th2 cells, in this way avoiding possible parasite Ag-specific T cell clones or cross-reactive memory T cells that may preferentially differentiate into Th2 effector cells during the course of infection. We have found that these parasites have a potent adjuvant effect and have used our model system to begin to investigate the early events that lead to the development of polarized Th2 cells in vivo.