Submitted to: Proceedings of Florida State Horticultural Society
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/27/2004
Publication Date: 12/31/2004
Citation: Lebrun, M., Ducamp, M., Plotto, A., Goodner, K.L., Baldwin, E.A. 2004. Development of electronic nose measurements for mango (mangifera indica) homogenate and whole fruit. Proceedings of Florida State Horticultural Society. 117:421-425.
Interpretive Summary: The electronic nose is a relatively new technology that crudely mimics the human nose in non-selective binding of aroma compounds that send a signal to the computer, rather than to the brain as in human odor detection. This technology could be useful for non-destructive discrimination of mango fruit for maturity at harvest, or variety. First, however, an optimal method must be determined by which mango puree or whole fruit can be sampled by this instrument, which was worked out in this study.
Technical Abstract: Mango fruit from Latin America (cv. Tommy Atkins), were purchased from a local Florida supermarket, homgenized, and sampled for volatile analysis by static headspace method. Some of the material was analyzed using an electronic nose (e-nose) with metal oxide coated or uncoated sensors (500 µL injection volume) and some by gas chromatography (GC) equipped with a polar carbowax column and a flame ionization detector. Dilution of homogenate and homogenate volume were analyzed to determine effect on e-nose and GC headspace measurements. Mango homogenate (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mL) was diluted with DI water to 50, 25, and 12.5% of original concentration. The resulting e-nose signal intensities (changes in resistance across the metal oxide sensor due to non-selective interactions with volatile compounds in the headspace) were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which resulted in grouping by dilution factor, regardless of sample size. A combination of 2.0 mL and 25% dilution of mango homogenate was determined to be optimal. These results were compared to analysis of 13 characteristic mango volatiles by gas chromatography (GC) headspace analysis of the mango homogenate for the same volume/dilution combinations. Concentration of volatiles in the headspace generally increased with volume and decreased with dilution, but there were some exceptions and inconsistencies. The increase in headspace concentration was not directly proportional to the homogenate volume, indicating matrix effect on aroma partitioning into the headspace, which varied for different compounds. Whole mangoes (cv. Keitt and Kent) harvested in Homestead, FL, were put in buckets for 4 hours and a large injection volume injected into the e-nose (2000 'L) was necessary to get ample signal and reproducible results and separated the two varieties based on their volatile emission to the headspace.