Submitted to: Positive Strand RNA Virus International Conference Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2004
Publication Date: 6/20/2004
Citation: Carrillo, C., Lu, Z., Tulman, E., Vagnozzi, A., Kutish, G.F., Rock, D.L. 2004. Comparative genomics of foot-and-mouth disease virus [abstract]. Positive Strand RNA Virus International Conference Proceedings. P. 97.
Interpretive Summary: Poxvirus Meeting.
Technical Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease is an acute, debilitating disease in agriculturally significant cloven-hooved animals, including cattle, swine, sheep and goats that constitutes a primary animal health concern worldwide. The causative agent FMDV, like other Picornaviruses, contains a positive sense, single stranded RNA genome of approximately 8000 bases that is directly translated into a single polyprotein and cleaved, post-translationally, to render mature viral proteins. Currently, little is known regarding the molecular aspects of FMDV pathogenesis, including the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying viral virulence and host rage. The limited number of complete FMDV genome sequences currently available prevents comparative analysis and the association of specific viral genotypes with significant biological traits. Here one hundred and four complete FMDV genome sequences representing all seven serotypes were obtained. Comparative analysis of all genome sequences revealed 40.4% and 45.1% conservation at the nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively. Genetic variation was not uniformly distributed on the genome, resulting in both highly conserved and variable regions. Analysis indicated that selective pressure at the protein level clearly defines mutation deleterious motifs as well as mutation tolerant areas, some of which have been assigned specific biological functions. Viral genomic features with potential diagnostic, epidemiological and forensic value were identified. Comparative genomic analysis furthers understanding of FMDV genetic variation and evolution in nature.