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Title: ZOONOTIC PROTOZOA: FROM LAND TO SEA

Author
item Fayer, Ronald
item Dubey, Jitender
item Lindsay, David

Submitted to: Trends in Parasitology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/21/2004
Publication Date: 11/1/2004
Citation: Fayer, R., Dubey, J.P., Lindsay, D.S. 2004. Zoonotic Protozoa: From Land to Sea. Trends in Parasitology. 20:531-536.

Interpretive Summary: Attention to worldwide pollution of the coastal marine environment has focused primarily on toxic algal blooms and pathogenic bacteria that multiply in nutrient rich waters. However, massive but unseen amounts of feces from humans, their pets, and their domesticated animals are discharged, dumped, or carried in runoff, bringing encysted zoonotic protozoan parasites to estuaries and coastal waters. Here they contaminate bathing beaches, are filtered and concentrated by shellfish eaten by humans and marine mammals, and infect a wide range of marine animal hosts, resulting in morbidity and mortality to some populations. This review addresses the extent of contamination and the animals affected by three genera of important zoonotic protozoa- Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma.

Technical Abstract: Attention to worldwide pollution of the coastal marine environment has focused primarily on toxic algal blooms and pathogenic bacteria that multiply in nutrient rich waters. However, massive but unseen amounts of feces from humans, their pets, and their domesticated animals are discharged, dumped, or carried in runoff, bringing encysted zoonotic protozoan parasites to estuaries and coastal waters. Here they contaminate bathing beaches, are filtered and concentrated by shellfish eaten by humans and marine mammals, and infect a wide range of marine animal hosts, resulting in morbidity and mortality to some populations. This review addresses the extent of contamination and the animals affected by three genera of important zoonotic protozoa- Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma.