|Miklas, Phillip - Phil|
Submitted to: Bean Improvement Cooperative Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2003
Publication Date: 11/1/2003
Citation: Kelly, J.D., Miklas, P.N. 2004. Germplasm enhancement in the united states: the tropical connection. Proceedings of the National Dry Bean Council, invited talk, Oct 29, Sacramento, CA, 2003. In Annual Report Bean Improvement Coop 47:35-36.
Technical Abstract: The utilization of tropical germplasm in U.S. bean improvement programs is not well documented. The USDA-ARS project in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, under the tutelage of Dr. Freytag made many significant contributions of enhanced tropical dry bean germplasm that was utilized as parents to improve architecture and disease resistance in temperate breeding programs. Results of these efforts included the development of the upright small seeded navy bean Mayflower, first upright pinto varieties Sierra and great northern Matterhorn, rust resistant B-190, L-226 and L-227 lines, and improved germplasm, possessing multiple disease resistance released by Miklas in later years. The Puerto Rican location provided an alternative selection site for broadening the adaptation of previously locally adapted Durango race beans. A historical perspective of the utilization of tropical and exotic germplasm during cultivar development of two traditional U.S. dry bean market classes, small red and great northern, is described in detail. Both market classes originate from landraces that were grown by the Indians and early settlers. In summary, few introgressions of exotic germplasm were made in the small red or great northern market classes prior to the shuttle-breeding efforts initiated in the early 1990's. The cultivars derived from shuttle breeding are more widely adapted and possess better disease resistance and architecture, which essentially enables them to be grown across a wider geographic area. These recent materials contribute genetic diversity, which will facilitate breeding for improved yield potential in the small red and great northern market classes, and may reduce vulnerability of the market classes to emerging diseases. The pioneering effort of George Freytag and Wayne Adams for establishing the shuttle-breeding program, and subsequent efforts by Jim Beaver and Jim Kelly to improve and maintain it, should be recognized.