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item Riley, Ronald
item TORRES, O
item Glenn, Anthony - Tony

Submitted to: Multicrop Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Elimination and Fungal Genomics Workshop-The Peanut Foundation
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/1/2003
Publication Date: 3/15/2004
Citation: Riley, R.T., Torres, O.A., Palencia, E., Glenn, A.E., Fuentes, M. 2004. A survey of fumonisins in maize in the highlands and lowlands of guatemala 2000-2002. Multicrop Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Elimination and Fungal Genomics Workshop-The Peanut Foundation. October 13-15, 2003, Savannah, Georgia. p. 15.

Interpretive Summary: Abstract - no interpretive summary required

Technical Abstract: Maize samples were collected from highlands (>1700 m) and lowlands (<360 m) of Guatemala in 2000 to 2002. Samples were analyzed for fumonisin B1 (FB1) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 2000 and 2001 and by LC ion trap mass spectrometry (LCMSMS) in 2002. The detection limit for HPLC and LCMSMS methods were 0.3 ppm and 0.05 ppm, respectively. The LCMSMS method also detected FB2 and FB3. Samples in 2002 that had detectable FB1 but were <0.3 ppm were assigned a value of 0 ppm. The mean FB1 level (2000 to 2002) in maize from the lowlands (1.2+/-0.3 ppm, n=205) was significantly higher than the maize from the highlands (0.26+/-0.18 ppm, n=142). The incidence of FB1 positive samples was significantly greater in the lowland maize (109/205) compared to that from the highlands (13/142). In the maize from the highlands, 9% of the samples contained >0.3 ppm FB1 with the highest being 7.3 ppm, whereas, in the lowland samples 53% were >0.3 ppm FB1 and 2.4 % were >10 ppm with one sample being 21 ppm. Analysis of the samples from 2002 by LCMSMS revealed that most FB1 positive samples contained FB2 and FB3 at a ratio of 1:0.4:0.3. In addition, approximately 92% (104/113)of the samples from the lowlands in 2002 contained detectable levels of FB1, whereas, all but 5 (5/92) of the samples from the highlands contained no detectable fumonisins. Based on a recall study in women conducted in the Central Highlands, a preliminary assessment of daily intake of total FBs was estimated. Consumption of nixtamalized maize products made from lowland maize could result in exposure exceeding the provisional maximal tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) recommended by the WHO/FAO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (2 micrograms total fumonisins/kg bw) with 52% of the maize samples (24%=2.6 micrograms total fumonisins/kg bw/day; 20%=7.8 micrograms total fumonisins/kg bw/day; 6%=25.2 micrograms total fumonisins/kg bw/day; 2%=57.7 micrograams total fumonisins/kg bw/day). However, even the highest estimated intake is below the no observable adverse effect level (200 micrograms fumonisin B1/kg bw/day based on renal toxicity in rat) upon which the PMTDI was calculated (support: USDA FAS grant X01-4510-62-751071-4; ILSI NA Technical Committee on Food Toxicology and Safety Assessment).