Submitted to: Journal of Virology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/22/2003
Publication Date: 1/20/2004
Citation: Delhon, G., Tulman, E., Afonso, C.L., Lu, Z., Concha-Bermejillo, A., Lehmkuhl, H., Piccone, M.E., Kutish, G.F., Rock, D.L. 2004. Genomes of parapoxviruses orf virus and bovine papular stomatitis virus. Journal of Virology. 78(1):168-177.
Interpretive Summary: Parapoxviruses, Orf virus (ORFV) and bovine popular stomatitis virus (BPSV) cause diseases in livestock in the United States. Significantly, these diseases are 'look-alike diseases' for high consequence FAD. Complete genomic sequences from two ORFV and one BPSV strain were obtained and analyzed. Genomes ranged in size from 134 to 139 Kbp encoded 130 and 131 genes, respectively, and shared colinearity over 127 genes. Genomic differences (71% amino acid identify) distinguish BPSV and ORFV as two PPV species. Genes unique to these viruses including those with putative virulence and host range functions were identified. Impact: Genomic information will permit design of improved diagnostic assays to distinguish between these viruses and other high consequence exotic poxviruses associated with FAD of livestock. In addition, viral genomic information may permit rational design of improved and very badly needed ORFV vaccines.
Technical Abstract: Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) and Orf virus (ORFV), members of the genus Parapoxvirus of the Poxviridae, are etiologic agents of worldwide diseases affecting cattle and small ruminants, respectively. Here we report the genomic sequences and comparative analysis of BPSV strain BV-AR02 and ORFV strains OV-SA00, isolated from a goat, and OV-IA82, isolated from a sheep. Parapoxvirus (PPV) BV-AR02, OV-SA00, and OV-IA82 genomes range in size from 134 to 139 Kbp, with an average nucleotide composition of 64% G+C. BPSV and ORFV genomes contain 131 and 130 putative genes, respectively, and share colinearity over 127 genes, 88 of which are conserved in all characterized chordopoxviruses. BPSV and ORFV contain 15 and 16 ORFs, respectively, which lack similarity to other poxvirus or cellular proteins. All genes with putative roles in pathogenesis, including a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-like gene, are present in both viruses; however, BPSV contains two extra ankyrin repeat genes absent in ORFV. Interspecies sequence variability is observed in all functional classes of genes, but is highest in putative virulence/host range genes including genes unique to PPV. At the amino acid level, OV-SA00 is 94% identical to OV-IA82 and 71% identical to BV-AR02. Notably, ORFV 006/132, 103, 109, 110, and 116 genes (VEGF, homologues of vaccinia virus [VACV] A26L, A33R, and A34R, and a novel PPV ORF) show an unusual degree of intraspecies variability. These genomic differences are consistant with the classification of BPSV and ORFV as two PPV species. Genome nucleotide composition, similarity in gene repertoire, and phylogenetic analysis suggest that PPV are more closely related to molluscum contagiosum virus (MOCV) than to other mammalian chordopoxviruses.