Submitted to: Hawaiian Entomological Society Proceedings
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/28/2003
Publication Date: 12/1/2003
Citation: Harris, E.J., Liquido, N., Lee, C.Y. 2003. Patterns in appearance and fruit host utilization of fruit flies (diptera: tephritidae) on the kalaupapa peninsula, molokia hawaii. Hawaiian Entomological Society Proceedings. 36:69-78.
Interpretive Summary: The solanaceous fruit fly was the fourth and last fruit fly introduced into Hawaii in 1983. A survey was made using male lure traps and fruit collections in 1990-1995 to determine how far this fly had spread from its point of introduction in Pearl city, Oahu to other islands in Hawaii. We choose the Kalaupapa peninsula of Molokai to do our search for solanaceous and all fruit flies found there. Only, the oriental fruit fly and melon fly were caught in male lure traps. The solanaceous fruit fly was recovered only from fruit samples. Surprisingly, fruit samples revealed the most valuable information about distribution, population characteristics and fruit host utilization of tephritid flies in Kalaupapa. For the first time in Kalaupapa settlement, we report infestations of solanum fruit fly in sodom apple, lei kikania, cherry tomato, and coffee. Fruit sampling proved to be a sensitive tool to survey for fruit flies, particularly, B. latifrons, as well as a reliable indicator to characterize fruit host sharing among the four fruit fly species.
Technical Abstract: Distribution and population characteristics of tephritid flies, namely, solanaceous fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons Hendel, oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillet), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were monitored with male lure traps on Kalaupapa peninsula on the island of Molokai. Likewise, fruits were inventoried and sampled to augment trap data and generate information on the spatial patterns of fruiting phenology and fruit utilization among fruit flies. In 1991-1992 and 1995, trap catches indicated that B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae had similar seasonal population trends and were caught in highest density in residential and wild guava areas. However, the mean catch/trap/day for B. dorsalis (654 ± 493.73) was ca. 40-fold higher than B. cucurbitae (31.4 ± 15.28). Only 1 C. capitata was caught in a coffee tree, Coffea arabica L., in Kalaupapa Settlement on December 12, 1995. Although, B. latifrons was never caught in male lure traps baited with latilure, fly presence was detected in fruit collections. For the first time in Kalaupapa settlement, we report infestations of B. latifrons in sodom apple, Solanum sodomeum L., lei kikania, S. aculeatissium Jacq., cherry tomato, Lycopersicum esculeatissium Miller and coffee, Coffea arabica L. Fruit sampling proved to be a sensitive tool to survey for fruit flies, particularly, B. latifrons, as well as a reliable indicator to characterize fruit host sharing among the four fruit fly species. Niche biology and ecology of B. latifrons is discussed in relation to other tephritid fruit flies on the Kalaupapa peninsula.